ID bug found in Mojave county, USA

ID bug found in Mojave county, USA

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What is this? I found it under a bed sheet. I live In Mojave county, AZ, USA, in the middle of the desert. It was probably 1/8 inch long. And narrow.

Initial guess based on mouthparts, coloration and small size:

Neuropteran larva. Possibly a green lacewing (family Chrysopidae).



Source: Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve

According to here, green lacewings are found in Arizona deserts.

I will update in the morning with more detail…

Commonly Encountered California Snakes

I have received many emails asking me to identify all of species of snakes shown below, so these are either the snakes most commonly encountered in California, or those that are the most difficult to identify for the novice.

Always keep in mind that most snakes vary in appearance, and a snake can look much different in motion than it does in still photos (where it is often coiled up unnaturally to fit in the picture better.)

Don't only consider the color of a snake - it can be lighter or darker than seen in these or in other pictures, and the pattern can also vary.

If you do not find your snake here, try going back to the Snake Identification page.

Feel free to email a picture to me along with information about where you saw it (city and county) and what it was doing.

This is the snake I am most often asked to identify.
It is very common in most of the state.

Common in the desert and southern California coastal region. Sometimes enters suburban yards.

Many people find these tiny snakes on their property in Northern California and in the Sierra Nevada foothills,
often while digging in leaf litter or under rocks or other surface objects.

Common throughout the state. Most have bands or rings around the body, but some have stripes.
They can be brown or black with white or yellow bands or stripes.

Common throughout most of the state. Very fast moving and mostly solid gray, greenish, or brown in color.
The young appear completely different from adults, with a pattern of dark blotches similar to a Gophersnake.

Common throughout most of the state. Long and very fast moving with light stripes on the sides (but not on the back.)
Often confused with gartersnakes which also have stripes on the sides.

Common throughout much of the state. Gray with a light ring around the neck.
Bright orange or yellow on the belly and under the end of the tail.

Common throughout much of the state, but less common in suburban areas.
Has a large body with a large triangular head and a blunt tail with a rattle on the end.
This snake is often heard before it is seen, but it does not always rattle.

Common throughout much of the state.
The head is slightly wider than the body. Most species of gartersnake have two or three light stripes,
but some have only side stripes and sometimes the stripes are faint.


More than 12,000 species of ants are known with about 700 found in the U.S. Only about 25 species will be found inside homes. Some of the ants classified as pests found in Southern California include the argentine ant, carpenter ant, harvester ant, little black ant, odorous house ant, Pharaoh ant, red imported fire ant, Southern fire ant, thief ant and the velvety tree ant. When Ants become a nuisance our Ant Control Service will help in reducing their numbers.


This small non-stinging ant is about 1/8th inch and is a brownish color. They are the most persistent and troublesome ant that invades houses because they are small and can get through tiny cracks. Argentine Ants live in shallow galleries in the ground often only a few inches deep. A single colony has multiple queens and can grow quite rapidly, displacing other native types of ants. They also rapidly establish other colonies when a queen leaves and takes some of the workers with her. These satellite colonies may eventually return, or they may become the mother colony to many new colonies. During the hot summer months, some may even be temporarily established inside homes under carpets, attic insulation, in walls and potted plants.

Life Cycle – The eggs hatch in about two weeks into larvae. The larvae mature into a pupa in about a month, and the pupa stage lasts only 15 days. The whole process of egg to adult can range from as short as 33 days to a maximum of 141 days.


Carpenter ants are one of the larger ants that invade homes and are usually ¼ to ½ inch in size. Despite what their name may imply, they do not actually eat wood. These non-stinging ants tunnel through wood to create their homes and can do considerable damage. They will infest dead trees, telephone poles, and houses but can also be found in lawns. They feed on other insects and juices and are fond of anything sweet. They are liquid feeders and unable to swallow solid foods. Adult carpenter ants have the ability to bite. Each colony has one queen, who lays only a few eggs that become minor workers, who then go out and forage to feed the queen and the young. A colony may eventually contain over 3,000 workers. When they get into houses, damage can be severe and require extensive repairs.

Life Cycle – Females lay eggs in chambers of galleries, which hatch into larvae in about 24 days. The larvae mature into pupa in 21 days. Pupa are encased in cocoons, which are commonly called ant eggs. The pupal stage is also 21 days, so the minimum time from egg to adult is 66 days.


The California variety of the harvester ant is 1/4th inch in size and red colored. Nests are found underground with a small mound at the opening, which is littered with leftover food debris. They generally seek seeds as a main source of food. During the winter, the nest is sealed off and no activity is seen. The harvester ant is known for its ability to sting. These ants have been able to kill small pigs by their sudden and vicious attacks. Harvester Ants will go after people and any small animal that gets too close to their nest. A few types will leave the stinger in their victim just as bees do.

Life Cycle – Swarming occurs several times each year, starting in June and July but most prominently during August and September. The winged ants emerge in large numbers. The male dies right after mating, and the female starts a new underground colony. Colonies can last for several years and contain thousands of ants. The colony becomes less active in temperatures over 120 degrees and during the rainy season.


This very small stinging ant is about 1/16th inch and colored dark brown to black. They build nests underground, under tree bark, beneath rocks, and can even infest woodwork in buildings. They will nest both indoors and outdoors. They will also build nests in lawns and vacant lots. Their favorite food is insect honeydew, but in houses they will go after just about anything such as grease, sweets, meat, fruits, and vegetables. They even eat other insects, both dead and alive.

Life Cycle – Little black ants will swarm in the summer, reproducing and forming new colonies. Each colony can grow quite large and eventually contain multiple queens.


This small non-stinging ant is about 1/8th inch and colored dark brown to black. They get their name from the rotten coconut-like odor that they produce when they are crushed. They routinely invade houses searching for food during the winter, when their usual honeydew food outside is gone. Like the Argentine ant, colonies contain multiple queens and a few thousand worker ants. They nest under stones and pavement and will establish nest inside houses also.

Life Cycle – Females lay only one egg per day, which mature into larvae in 2-3 weeks. They remain as larvae from 2-4 weeks, and then enter a pre-pupal stage for 2-3 days. The pupal stage lasts an average of two weeks before they become adults. Several generations can develop each year, and the females may live for several years. Males only last a few days after emergence.


Pharaoh ants are small, less than 1/16th inch, and are a yellowish to brownish color. This stinging ant will eat just about anything that people eat especially fatty and greasy foods like meat and sweets. As a predator to many insects it can spread bacteria. Their unusual name comes from its original habitat in Egypt. The Pharaoh ant seeks to establish nests in warm and inaccessible locations inside buildings near food. A colony contains many queens and can have hundreds of thousands of workers!

Life Cycle – Eggs incubate for a little over a week, and go through a larval stage of about three weeks. This ant has a pre-pupal stage of three days, and the pupal stage lasts 9-10 days before becoming an adult. The whole egg to adult process can be as little as 38 days under optimum conditions.


Red imported fire ants have caused destruction throughout the Southeastern portion of the United States, and two species have crept into Southern California. The red imported fire ants are 1/4th inch in size and vary reddish in color, although there is a minor variety that is black. They build large earthen mounds, growing to 20-30 colonies per acre. The mound is usually about a foot high, but some have been reported which have reached eight feet in height. A mound will contain between 30,000 and 100,000 workers. The red imported fire ant will feed on plants, including tree bark, and can be very destructive. Imported fire ants can do major damage to new crops. They will also feed on other insects, eggs and young birds in ground nests.
Red imported fire ants are a very aggressive stinging ant that destroys other species of ant colonies in the area. Fire ants can cause a severe sting, even being fatal when large numbers of the ants attack. They get their name from the severe reaction caused by their stings-it feels like fire! It is very aggressive and likes to sting both humans and animals. Over 1 million people are stung each year by red imported fire ants in the Southeastern United States.

Life Cycle – Eggs develop in 7-10 days, larvae in 6-12 days, and pupa in 9-16 days. The egg to adult life cycle ranges from 22-38 days, a quickly developing ant. Minor workers live from one to two months, while major workers can live up to six months.


The Southern fire ant is widespread throughout the lower altitudes of Southern California. The Southern fire ant is generally a little smaller than the red imported fire ant, but can also cause significant damage and inflict a painful sting. They are up to 1/4th inch long, and have a reddish brown or black color. Their nests are sensitive to vibrations so if a footstep is detected close by, the ants will swarm out to attack. They build mounds, with the nests located under objects like stones, boards, or anything on the ground that provides cover. They will also get into the wood or masonry of a house, and can build mounds. The Southern fire ant can also be a problem to crops. It will eat just about anything and are known to kill young or newborn birds and poultry. It’s been reported that they have eaten the rubber insulation off electrical wiring, causing shorts in wiring.

Life Cycle – A queen can lay over 1,000 eggs in a 24-hour period, which hatch in 2-4 weeks. During the warm summer months, the egg to adult process can be as little as 44 days.


Thief ants are tiny, only about 1/16th of an inch, and are a pale brownish color. Their size makes it easy for them to get into houses in search of food and water. They love meat, cheese and greasy foods. They will also eat dead insects. The nests are in galleries in dirt, and they often build near another ant colony – raiding it to steal food. This is how they got their name. The thief ant will also build inside walls, cupboards, cracks and crevices of structures. They can host diseases and tapeworms as an additional problem for human food. A colony may contain from a few hundred to a few thousand ants.

Life Cycle – Queens lay about 100 eggs, which incubate for 16-28 days. The larval stage varies greatly with temperature, developing in as little as three weeks. This ant also has a pre-pupal stage of 2-11 days, and the pupal stage itself ranges from 13-27 days.


As its name suggests, this ant will nest in trees, particularly those found alongside streams and creeks. They range in size from 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch. These ants are found in the foothill and mountain areas. They will range several hundred feet from the nest, and can invade homes. They will also bring dead insects and other foods back to the nest. Velvety tree ants can bite, and they inject a poison into the wound.

Life Cycle – Velvety tree ants can form huge colonies not only in trees but also in old stumps, and underground. The colony will have a single queen and thousands of workers. Swarming normally occurs in May to start a new colony, but a late summer swarm may also happen.


Most scorpions live in warm, dry climates, and many of the species found in North America occur in Arizona, adjacent areas of California, and parts of New Mexico. Of the 70 or so species found in North America, only one, the Bark Scorpion, Centruroides exilicauda is considered dangerous because of its’ extremely potent venom.

​Scorpions are easily distinguished by their crablike appearance, pair of pincers, four pairs of legs, and long, segmented tail ending with an enlarged segment bearing a stinger. Although they have two eyes in the center of the head and usually two to five more along the margin on each side, they don’t see well and depend on touch. When running, they hold their pincers outstretched, and the posterior end of the abdomen is usually curved upward. Scorpions that hide under stones and other objects during the day tend to carry their stinger to one side, whereas burrowing scorpions hold their stinger up over their backs. They are nocturnal predators, feeding at night, on a wide range of insects, spiders, centipedes and even other scorpions. Larger scorpions can feed on small lizards, snakes and mice.


As their name implies, these scorpions are fairly common and can be found everywhere from Progreso, Baja California Norte, to Marin County and Lake Tahoe California. It can be found in almost every type of habitat, from coastal dunes to high-elevation conifer forests. The genus Paruroctonus is the largest in North America, north of Mexico. Unfortunately, most species are indistinguishable from one another except when examined under magnification. Generally, all members of the genus have a series of long hairs on the dorsal surfaces of the feet (bristlecombs) which are more highly developed in sand-dwelling species and all species lack dorsal spines on the segments of the tail. In most cases, the apendages (hands) of the pedipalps are quite large. At maturity they range from 2 to 3 inches long. Although there are color variations, most of these scorpions lack pigment and appear clear tan to pale yellow or orange.


This is one of the most common scorpion species in Southern California, Arizona, and the United States. It is a burrowing scorpion that is often found in sandy soil but can survive in a variety of habitats from desert floor to rocky hillside. At maturity, the stripedtail scorpion is about 2 1/2 inches long, and the body is striped on the upper side. This scorpion is venomous but not considered dangerous unless allergies to its’ venom are present. It may be found under common objects such as sleeping bags, shoes, and other similar items.​​


This common desert species is found in Southern California and throughout Arizona. In Southern California it has been reported in Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties. At maturity it can be 5 to 7 inches long. Like many other desert scorpions, the Arizona hairy scorpion is a burrower but may also be found under rocks, logs, sleeping bags, and other surface objects. This scorpion can often be found around homes and in garages. It is a night feeder attracted to water, swimming pools, irrigated areas, or outside lights where food prey such as beetles, cockroaches, crickets, moths, and other insects are attracted as well. During the day it may be found in woodpiles, palm trees, and decorative bark or under loose boards, woodpiles, rocks, or the bark of trees. Like some other scorpions, the Arizona hairy scorpion may enter homes in search of water. Common indoor places where it might be found are dark, cool areas in the bathroom or kitchen as well as crawl spaces, attics, and closets.


This scorpion is found throughout Arizona, in the extreme southeastern portion of California near Arizona, and in southwestern New Mexico. In Mexico, the bark scorpion is found in Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, and Sonora. The Bark scorpion has the most toxic sting in the U.S. The venom of this scorpion may produce severe pain and swelling at the sting site, numbness, frothing at the mouth, breathing problems, muscle twitching and convulsions. Death is rare and an antivenin is available for severe cases. Children and the elderly can be the most affected by the sting of this scorpion.

These scorpions reach a length of 3 inches and have a very thin tail only 1/16 of an inch wide the body is yellow without stripes or patterns. The bark scorpion is the only common climbing scorpion and does not normally burrow but usually lives above ground under tree bark and in palm trees and crevices of rocky cliffs. Because it can ascend slump block walls or stucco, this species is the scorpion most likely to enter dwellings. The bark scorpion is attracted to moisture around homes and in the house. It also may be found in stacked lumber or bricks, firewood piles, cellars, and attics. It needs only a crack of 1/16 inch to enter a home.

If you do find scorpions in your home, contact us. We’ll be able to inspect your property, perform proper identification, and recommend a course of pest control.




Appearance: Black widow spiders are known for the females’ unique appearance and tendency to eat their mates. They are considered the most venomous spiders in North America however, their bite is rarely fatal to humans. Male and female black widows look different. Female black widows are about 1.5 inches long. The males are about half the size of females and are lighter in color, with red or pink spots on their backs. The females are the most distinctive, with shiny black bodies and a red hourglass-shaped marking on the underside of their round abdomen. An important characteristic of this spider is its comb foot. This comb, a row of strong, curved bristles is located on the hind pair of legs and is used to throw silk over captured prey. Black widow spiders eat other spiders and insects that get caught in their webs. The female spider hangs upside down from her web as she waits for her prey. By doing this she shows off her bright markings, which are a warning to predators that she is toxic.

Life Cycle – Black widows are primarily solitary creatures, with the exception of late spring when mating occurs. Female spiders can live up to three years. Males will live for one or two months. The female often kills and eats the male after mating, providing her with a ready supply of protein which is necessary for the offspring developing inside her. The female creates light tan papery, round and smooth egg sacs that contain between 200 and 900 eggs each. The eggs hatch after about 30 days. The baby spiders are cannibalistic and few survive the three-month period of development to adulthood.

Small male and Large female Brown Widow

Female Brown Widow with egg sacs


Appearance: The brown widow is slightly smaller and lighter in color than its black cousin the color can range from tan to dark brown to black, with shades of grey. Like its black cousin, it has a prominent hourglass-shaped design on the underside of the abdomen the brown widow’s hourglass, however, is usually a vivid orange or a yellowish color. It also has a black-and-white geometric pattern on the top side of its abdomen. As the spider matures its coloring darkens and this pattern becomes less noticeable. Also, they have distinctive stripes on their legs. Brown widows are most often identified by their egg sacs. Their distinctive round and spiked eggs sacs, differentiates them from the black widow egg sacs that are round and smooth in appearance.

Life Cycle –
Brown widows live from 1 to 2 years and they produce approximately 20 egg sacs containing 120-150 eggs per sac over a lifetime. Spiderlings will hatch in approximately 14 to 21 days but remain inside the egg sac for 4 days to one month. They will then emerge from the egg sac, molt and begin eating but remain in the nest area for several weeks after which they will perform their amazing, ballooning act, as they instinctively venture into the world on favorable winds, looking for food, water and safe harborage. This species can breed all year long.

Red Back Jumping Spider Male


Appearance: There are many different kinds of jumping spiders but in California, the red-back jumping spider is the most recognizable. Jumping spiders average about 3/8″ in length and the female spider is generally larger than the male. They are typically brightly colored, sport very unique patterns, are hairy and sometimes thick bodied. Four pair of eyes give it extremely sharp 360-degree vision. It can see better than almost any other animal of the same size. Having the ability to turn its breast around 45 degrees is another of it’s amazing talents. The back of a red-back jumping spider is distinctly red, with a black strip if it is a female. The rest of the body is usually entirely black. This tiny spider is a daytime hunter and will jump long distances (5 times the length of its own body) to catch its prey. Prey being small insects. It does not spin webs but creates a funnel shaped silken nest in which to hide and where the females lay their eggs.

Life Cycle – Before mating, the male walks toward the female, then backs away. He performs a kind of zigzag dance, and some males produce a sound by twitching their abdomens while dancing. Sometimes the male is killed after mating. A female jumping spider builds a silk case around her eggs. She will then stand guard over them until they hatch. Young jumping spiders emerge from the egg sac looking like miniature versions of their parents.


Appearance: The orb weavers (Araneidae) are one of the three largest spider groups. Their webs consist of radiating strands, like spokes of a wheel, and concentric circles. Most orb weavers build their webs vertically, attaching them to branches, stems, or manmade structures. Webs may be quite large, spanning several feet in width and round in shape which is where this family of spiders gets its name. Orb weaver spiders possess eight eyes, arranged in two rows of four eyes each. Despite this, they have relatively poor eyesight and rely on vibrations within their web to alert them to food. Orb weavers have four to six spinnerets, from which they produce strands of silk. Many orb weavers are brightly colored, and have hairy or spiny legs.

Life Cycle – Males are much smaller than females, and after mating may become her next meal. The female waits on or near her web, letting the males come to her. She lays eggs in clutches of several hundred that are cocooned in silken sacs. In areas with cold winters, the female orb weaver will lay a large clutch in the fall and wrap it in thick silk. She will die with the first frost, leaving her babies to hatch in the spring. Orb weavers live, on average, one to two years.

Female Wolf Spider carrying babies


Appearance: Wolf spiders are usually, brown, grey, black or tan, with dark markings (usually stripes). Their coloring is an effective camouflage, helping them catch their prey and keep safe from predators. They range from a quarter of an inch to over an inch long, with males usually smaller than females. They have a distinctive eye arrangement, where the front row is composed of four small eyes of roughly the same size arranged in almost a straight line. The back row is arranged in a V-pattern with the point next to the back row. Wolf spiders have excellent night vision, and primarily hunt in the dark. They are easily detected at night due to their eye shine.

Life Cycle – The males signal their interest to females by waving their pedipalps (short, sensory appendages near their mouths) in special patterns or banging them together. After mating, female wolf spiders lay several dozen or more eggs and wrap them in silk, creating an egg sac. Female wolf spiders carry their egg sacs attached to her spinnerets (silk making organs). If the female loses her egg sac, she will search for it. Females are known to be most aggressive when carrying their egg sacs. After hatching, spiderlings climb on their mother’s back and she carries them around for several days. The baby spiders, then migrate to new territories by the process of ballooning. (Spinning silk threads that catch a friendly breeze, carrying them away.) Male wolf spiders typically live for one year or less, while females can live for several years.


Appearance: The Desert Recluse is found in the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, in the foothills of the lower Joaquin Valley and areas close to the Mexican border. They prefer to live in remote unpopulated areas. These spiders are nocturnal, meaning they only come out at night and they live under rocks and in old animal burrows. The average size of a mature Desert Recluse spider is approximately 1/2 of an inch, with a leg span of 1.5 to 2 inches. Male and female are similar in size. Desert Recluse spiders, and other related recluse spiders, have six eyes arranged in three pairs of two. This is a unique feature, since most spiders have eight eyes. Its’ legs are quite long and almost hairless, and with legs spread outward the spider may have a diameter of less than 1.5 inches. The cephalothorax is round in appearance and the abdomen is narrow and covered with very short hairs. This spider can be yellowish tan to dark brown in color. It is different from other recluse spiders in that it does not have the typical violin marking on its’ abdomen. The dark violin marking will appear on the top of its’ cephalothorax.

Life Cycle: A female Desert Recluse deposits 40 to 50 eggs inside a single silken egg sac. In her life time she will produce 1-5 of these egg sacs. The spiderlings go through their first molt inside the egg sac then hatch out in about two weeks. After emerging, they go through 6 or 7 more molts in the next 7-12 months before becoming adults. Adults live about 1-2 years.

Warning: These spiders may bite! Desert Recluse spiders are normally timid and prey on other insects. Man is not on their menu. If disturbed, they will defend themselves and their bite is venomous. Symptoms of a bite can range from nothing, to a wound that can become life threatening.

This spider is often mis-identified as a deadly “Brown Recluse”. (see below)

Small Male with Large Female


Appearance: The Common or American House Spider is a nuisance pest and poses no threat to humans. If trapped it may bite. It is aptly named as it is most often found indoors. The adult female of the species is approximately 5-8 mm (3/16 – 5/16 in) in length with a spherical (round) abdomen. Males have elongated abdomens and range from 3.8mm to 4.7mm (1/8 to 3/16th in) in length. These spiders have eight eyes (the 2 lateral pairs almost touch) and their 4th pair of legs has a row of serrated bristles. Both male and female are yellowish brown in color with their abdomens being off white with a few dark stripes meeting at an angle.

House spiders randomly select sites for their tangled webs. Insides homes, these spiders find it hard to survive because of low humidity and few insects they consider food. Outside they can be found around windows and in eaves, especially where a light source attracts their prey.

Life Cycle: Female common house spiders are usually the initiators of mating activity and are not aggressive towards the male. It is not unusual for male and female house spiders to live together on the same web. Mating may occur at any time of year. Common house spiders deposit as many as 250 eggs into a silken sac. These sacs are brownish in color and shaped like a flask. Females produce up to 17 of these sacs during their lifetime, resulting in more than 4,000 eggs. Within a week, spiderlings hatch. Adult spiders may survive up to a year or more.


Appearance: True Daddy long-legs are not spiders (arachnids) but arthropods (joint footed) insects. They are more closely related to mites and scorpions (without stingers or venom of course). They are also known as granddaddy long-legs, harvest spiders, or harvestmen. These spider wannabees are found on every continent except Antarctica. As opposed to spiders, they have 2 eyes (not 8) and one oval shaped body part containing head and abdomen. They do resemble spiders in that they have 8 jointed (very long) legs. Daddy longlegs spiders can range from 2 to 10 mm long (4/10 inch) in length, but their legs can grow up to 50 mm (2 inches). An old wives’ tale states Daddy long-legs are the most poisonous spiders in the world. This is absolutely, not true! They’re not spiders and they have no venom, stingers or mouth parts to bite with. Another myth busted!

Creatures misnamed as Daddy longlegs include:

California Ebony Tarantula


Appearance: Solitary hunters, these tarantulas, both about 2 inches in length, live in holes in the ground, or occasionally amid rocks, on dry, well-drained grass-covered hillsides or oak-filled woodlands and even desert environs. Tarantulas have poor vision, so they depend on the silk they deposit on the ground around their burrows to send a vibration, signaling that prey is within their reach. Their basic diet consists of beetles, grasshoppers, lizards, mice, scorpions, spiders and other insects. Tarantulas have eight legs, two pedipalps (claws), 8 eyes and are covered with hairs (used to assess their environment since their eyesight is poor and it serves as a defensive mechanism). These spiders have two large, prominent fangs for injecting venom into prey. The venom not only helps to immobilize prey, but also liquefies and digests the soft insides. The Ebony Tarantula is varied shades of black and grey whereas the Bronze is dusky brown to almost black.

Life Cycle: In the fall, after heavy rains, mature males emerge from their burrows seeking females. Male tarantulas take 7 to 10 years to reach maturity (mating age). Males create a ball of webbing upon which they deposit a small amount of sperm. They carry this ball in their pedipalps as they go looking for a female. When they find a female’s burrow, they tap on the silk lines outside of the female’s burrow to get her attention. If the female shows interest, the sperm will be deposited, and the male will try to escape quickly. Most males, even if they are not eaten by the females, die within 2 or 3 months. Female tarantulas produce an egg sac containing anywhere from two to more than 100 eggs. They lay their eggs within their burrow, in an area lined with their silk. Then cover them with more spider silk to form an egg sac. She will guard her eggs until they hatch. Female tarantulas have been known to live up to 25 years.


Appearance: These typically brown to grayish colored spiders have a body length of about 3/8″ inch (but can grow larger), with very long legs. They have six eyes arranged in pairs (dyads) with one middle pair and two side pairs. These spiders usually have markings on the top side of their cephalothorax, with a black line coming from it that looks like a violin with the neck of the violin pointing to the rear of the spider, resulting in the nicknames of fiddle back spider, brown fiddler, or violin spider.

Life Cycle – The female will lay 40 to 50 eggs in a silken casing, producing 1-5 casings during her lifetime. The spiderlings hatch and go through one molt inside the egg case before emerging into the world. After emerging, the instars go through 6-7 more molts in the nest during the next 7 to 12 months before becoming adults. The adults live 1-2 years.

Rick Vetter , a renowned research entomologist at the University of California, Riverside, stated not one single Brown Recluse spider has been ever verified in the State of California until Corky’s Pest Control discovered one in 2012. Up until then the species of recluse spider was only found in the Midwest and South United States. There are other types of desert recluse spiders found in the southwest deserts and sometimes in urban areas and there are several other spider species often misidentified as the fearsome “Brown Recluse”. There have also been numerous documented infectious and noninfectious conditions that produce wounds that have been initially misdiagnosed as brown recluse bites by medical professionals.

If you do find spiders in and around your home, contact us. We’ll be able to inspect your property, perform identification, and recommend a course of action.

Southern Pacific Rattlesnake - Crotalus oreganus helleri

Dark Blue = Range of this subspecies in California

Crotalus oreganus helleri - Southern Pacific Rattlesnake

Range of other subspecies in California:

Gray: Intergrade Range

Click the map for a topographical view

Juvenile with U.S. quarter-dollar coin
(2.3 cm or 15/16 ths of an inch wide)
San Diego County © Lori Paul

Rattlesnakes are important members of the natural community. They will not attack, but if disturbed or cornered, they will defend themselves. Reasonable watchfulness should be sufficient to avoid snakebite. Give them distance and respect.

Rattlesnakes are typically described as poisonous, but they are actually venomous.
A poisonous snake is one that is harmful to eat. A venomous snake injects dangerous venom into its victim.

A bite from a rattlesnake can be extremely dangerous, but rattlesnakes should not be characterized as aggressive and vicious, striking and biting without provocation, as they are often shown. If rattlesnakes are given some space and enough time to escape to a safe place, they will usually just crawl away as fast as possible to avoid confrontation. Rattlesnakes will not strike without a reason: they will strike at a potential meal and they will defend themselves from anything they perceive as dangerous. They avoid striking and biting because it uses up their valuable supply of venom which they need to kill and digest their food.

Rattlesnakes are often portrayed with the body partly coiled, the tail rattling loudly, and the head raised up and ready to strike, but they do not need to coil up this way to strike and bite. This display is a warning not to come any closer. It's a defensive behavior that some rattlesnakes use when they sense that crawling away would put them in danger of attack.

Rattlesnakes do not always rattle a warning. Sometimes they rattle loudly to warn potential enemies of their presence, but other times they remain silent when they sense a threat, choosing to remain still to rely on their cryptic color and pattern to let them blend into their surroundings to hide from the threat. Making a noise in this situation risks advertising their presence. They also use their natural camouflage to hunt by sitting still, without rattling, trying to remain invisible as they wait for a warm-blooded prey animal to pass close enough to strike.

A bite from this snake can be very dangerous without immediate medical treatment. Treatment can require hospitalization and great expense.

Bites that inject venom into humans are potentially dangerous without immediate medical treatment.
Sometimes a rattlesnake bites but does not inject venom. These are called "dry bites." A dry bite may still require medical attention.
Even a dead snake can bite and inject venom if the jaws open and close reflexively when they are touched.

A bite from any kind of rattlesnake of any age or any size should be treated as a serious medical emergency, but the bite of a juvenile rattlesnake is not more dangerous than the bite of an adult.
Experts disagree whether or not juvenile rattlesnake venom is more potent than adult rattlesnake venom, but this does not really make much difference in the severity of a bite.
While adult rattlesnakes can control the amount of venom they inject depending on their needs (small animals need less venom, a defensive or warning bite may need no venom, etc.), it is often assumed that juvenile rattlesnakes do not have the same ability and that they always inject the full amount of venom they have available. Some studies show this is not true. There is also no proof that adult rattlesnakes are more likely than juveniles to bite without injecting venom when they are biting as a warning. Regardless of these things, adults have far more venom to inject than juveniles so the potential danger from the bite of an adult is significantly higher than the danger from the bite of a juvenile. Even when an adult does not inject the full amount of venom it has available, it most likely injects more venom than a juvenile would inject.

Prey is found while the snake is actively moving, or by ambush, where the snake waits near lizard or rodent trails, striking at and releasing passing prey.
The snake then follows the trail of the envenomated animal and swallows it whole.

Male "Combat Dance"

Known to hybridize with the Northern Mohave Rattlesnake where their ranges overlap in western Antelope Valley. (Stebbins, 2003)

The species Crotalus oreganus - Western Rattlesnake, occurs from the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California north through most of California except the southern deserts, through Oregon and eastern Washington into British Columbia, Canada, and east into Idaho, Nevada, Utah, southwestern Wyoming, western Colorado,and northern Arizona.

In 2010, a new elevation record for C. oreganus (lutosus) was documented at 12,112 ft. (3962 m.) Wheeler Peak, Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada. (Herpetological Review 41(1), 2010)

Some authorities still use the former species name Crotalus viridis, recognizing the subspecies covered on this page as Crotalus viridis helleri.

A study published in February 2016* used head shapes and genetic analyses to determine that there are 6 full species of western rattlesnakes found in the former Crotalus viridis complex and suggested the following names, with the three species found in California shown here at the top of the list.
If this taxonomy is accepted, the ranges and common names of western rattlesnakes found in California will remain the same, but they will be full species instead of subspecies.

Crotalus helleri - Southern Pacific Rattlesnake
Crotalus lutosus - Geat Basin Rattlesnake
Crotalus oreganus - Northern Pacific Rattlesnake

Crotalus cerberus
- Arizona Black Rattlesnake
Crotalus concolor - Midget Faded Rattlesnake
Crotalus viridis - Prairie Rattlesnake

* Mark A. Davis, Marlis R. Douglas, Michael L. Collyer, Michael E. Douglas. Correction: Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis). PLOS ONE, 2016 11 (2): e0149712 DOI:
A 2002 study** split the Western Rattlesnake species Crotalus viridis into 7 distinct species:

Crotalus oreganus oreganus
becomes Crotalus oreganus
Crotalus oreganus helleri
becomes Crotalus helleri
Crotalus oreganus lutosus
becomes Crotalus lutosus

The common names remain the same.

** Douglas, Douglas, Schuett, Porras, & Holycross
[2002. Phylogeography of the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) Complex, With Emphasis on the Colorado Plateau]. Pp. 11-50. In Biology of the Vipers [Schuett, Höggren, Douglas, and Greene (editors). Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain, Utah]

Some naturalists believe that rattlesnakes on Santa Catalina Island are distinct from those on the mainland and will be recognized as a different subspecies once DNA studies are completed. LA Times Article 11/28/09

Alternate and Previous Names (Synonyms)

Timber Rattlesnake (It is not uncommon for a rattlesnake found in a forested area in California to be called a Timber Rattlesnake. The true Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) is not found in California. It occurs from southeast Minnesota down to central Texas and east to northern Florida up to south-central New Hampshire.)

Crotalus oreganus helleri - Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Stebbins & McGinnis 2012, SSAR 2012)
Crotalus viridis helleri - Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Wright & Wright 1957, Stebbins 1966, 1985, Klauber 1982, 2003)
Crotalus viridis helleri (Stebbins 1954)
Crotalus viridis helleri - Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Klauber 1949)
Crotalus viridis helleri (Meek, 1905)
Crotalus viridis (Rafinesque 1818)

Living With Rattlesnakes

California Department of Fish and Wildlife: Rattlesnakes in California

Florida Museum of Natural History: How to Safely Coexist With Snakes

The Tucson Herpetological Society: Living With Venomous Reptiles

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife: Living With Snakes

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Venomous Snakes

The Amazing Story of Andy Cat - a very lucky pet cat who was bitten by a rattlesnake and survived, thanks to the smart actions of its owners.

Stebbins, Robert C., and McGinnis, Samuel M. Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of California: Revised Edition (California Natural History Guides) University of California Press, 2012.

Stebbins, Robert C. California Amphibians and Reptiles. The University of California Press, 1972.

Samuel M. McGinnis and Robert C. Stebbins. Peterson Field Guide to Western Reptiles & Amphibians. 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2018.

Stebbins, Robert C. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.

Behler, John L., and F. Wayne King. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Powell, Robert., Joseph T. Collins, and Errol D. Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians and Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. The University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Bartlett, R. D. & Patricia P. Bartlett. Guide and Reference to the Snakes of Western North America (North of Mexico) and Hawaii. University Press of Florida, 2009.

Bartlett, R. D. & Alan Tennant. Snakes of North America - Western Region. Gulf Publishing Co., 2000.

Brown, Philip R. A Field Guide to Snakes of California. Gulf Publishing Co., 1997.

Ernst, Carl H., Evelyn M. Ernst, & Robert M. Corker. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003.

Wright, Albert Hazen & Anna Allen Wright. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Cornell University Press, 1957.

Ernst, Carl. H. Venomous Reptiles of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999.

Hayes, William K., Kent R. Beaman, Michael D. Cardwell, and Sean P. Bush, editors. The Biology of Rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, 2009.

Hubbs, Brian R., & Brendan O'Connor. A Guide to the Rattlesnakes and other Venomous Serpents of the United States. Tricolor Books, 2011.

Klauber, Laurence M. Rattlesnakes. University of California Press. (Abridged from the 1956 two volume Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind.) University of California Press, 1982.

Rubio, Manny. Rattlesnake - Portrait of a Predator. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998.

Walls, Jerry G. Rattlesnakes: Their Natural History and Care. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., 1996.

Eric A. Dugan, Alex Figueroa, and William K. Hayes. Home Range Size, Movements, and Mating Phenology of Sympatric Red Diamond (Crotalus ruber) and Southern Pacific (C. oreganus helleri) Rattlesnakes in Southern California. Pp. 353-364 in W. K. Hayes, K. R. Beaman, M. D. Cardwell, and S. P. Bush (eds.), The Biology of Rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press. 2008.

If no status is listed here, the animal is not included on either list. This most likely indicates that there are no serious conservation concerns for the animal. To find out more about an animal's status you can go to the NatureServe and IUCN websites to check their rankings.

ID bug found in Mojave county, USA - Biology

Since their introduction to the US from the Mediterranean and Asia several Saltcedar or tamarisk species, especially Tamarix ramosissima , developed into noxious weeds of riparian areas. In these valuable, but often fragile biotopes, tamarisks are replacing native willows, poplars and alders at an alarming rate with fast growing monocultures. So far there are no controlling natural enemies. In Arizona, solid stands of tamarisk can be seen for example at the Colorado River at Yuma and the San Pedro River at Benson.

Research and politics :
Researchers have studied tamarisks in Asia and Europe to find organisms usable as biological control of the spreading weed. Among the 'pests' that are tied to the tamarisk by close co-evolution in Asia and Europe (and thus would hopefully not attack any hosts other than tamarisk if introduced to the US), is the weevil Coniatus tamarisci . Efforts to get approval for its release here were underway for years, but were counteracted by naturalist groups mainly focused on birds because rare Willow Flycatchers are nesting in the tamarisk thickets. The United States Department of Agriculture claims not to have released the weevils from strict quarantine.

Field observations:
Last fall fellow arthropod researcher Jillian Cowles showed Charles O'Brien, our world expert on weevils, photos of a pretty little bug that she'd found on tamarisk bushes in Vail, Arizona. Charlie and Jens Prena recognized it as Coniatus splendidulus . This was the second time this species was found in the US, Charlie had received specimens from Phoenix, AZ in 2006.

So far we don't know how it got to the US. Could it have hitchhiked on a transport coming back from the war in Irak? This spring, it was found in Gilbert (Maricopa County), as well as along the Santa Cruz River from Marana (NW Pima County) to Amado (Santa Cruz County). The beetles fly well and will spread quickly, it seems.

Mating pair in early May 2011

Adult beetles hibernate in soil and litter close to the trees. In Arizona, they climb the trees by the end of March, feed on fresh shoots, mate, and begin laying their eggs in early April. The image shows an unusually dark male competing for access to the female, and an egg in the lower right corner. Eggs are usually placed in a cavity that the female chews and then covered with the chewed material. Oviposition as shown here sometimes occurs in captivity or under stress.

From mid April to early May larvae were feeding on leaves and flowers together with the adults. They live free and unprotected on the surface of the plant, an unusual strategy in weevils.

When they are ready to pupate the larvae spin retinous web cocoons that serve as protective cages. They place them in the open at the tips of twigs, sometimes in clusters. Larvae, and then later pupae, can be seen wiggling inside through the loose mesh.

By mid May most have emerged as beetles. From Asia, Kovalev describes two generations per year. Here in Arizona there may be time for one more, or the beetles may take an aestivation pause during the dry hot season that's approaching.

At the Santa Cruz River the beetles seemed to prefer immature young trees. These hosts appeared clearly set back in their development compared to beetle free trees.

P.s.: Another tamarisk 'pest' the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata is being released since 2004 in Utah and Colorado. Check this site for more info

P.p.s.: Diorhabda elongata , Trabutina mannipara (Mealybug) and Coniatus tamarisci were approved for release in 1996 Check here for more info. Only the leaf beetle was eventually released, but not in Arizona and New Mexico, where the Willow Flycatcher was found breeding in tamarisk.

April 2021: Coniatus splendidulus on a window screen in Oro Valley, Pima Co., AZ. Certainly no single occurrences anymore.

Sand Flea Facts & Information

Characteristics: The term sand flea is used to describe many species of animals.

How Did I Get Sand Fleas?

Itchy bites and welts received at beaches, marshes, and other coastal areas often come from sand fleas. There are many creatures called "sand fleas" by people at the beach, but true sand fleas are actually crustaceans, not insects, and cause no harm to humans or pets. In some areas, these critters are called beach fleas.

Still, these bites irritate skin and are similar to those delivered by the more familiar cat and dog flea species. If you or your pets are exhibiting symptoms of flea bites, your home may be infested with cat or dog fleas.

How Serious Are Sand Fleas?

True sand fleas will not live in homes, infest cats or dogs, and are usually simply a nuisance due to their bites. However, chigoes, a pest often mistaken for the sand flea, can cause great pain when they bore into the soles of people's feet. Since sand fleas eat seaweed, they are most likely to be found in large numbers where sea vegetation is washed up on the beach.

How Do I Get Rid of Sand Fleas?

In order to properly determine the pest and the threat, it is important to have the culprit identified, so it is best to collect the pest and have it identified. Contact your veterinarian for treatment options and call a pest control professional to discuss treatment and control methods.

What Orkin Does

Your local Orkin technician is trained to help manage sand fleas and similar pests. Since every building or home is different, your Orkin technician will design a unique program for your situation.

Orkin can provide the right solution to keep sand fleas in their place&hellipout of your home, or business.

Behavior, Diet, & Habit

Most people describe sand fleas as very small animals which bite people, leaving welts similar to that of a flea. These welts can be caused by a multitude of animals near sandy or coastal areas. There are also sand flies which bite people and are found in sandy areas including desert areas. Sand flies also leave itchy welts.

Pests Mistaken for Sand Fleas

Besides fleas and flies, there are biting gnats and midges which may leave welts, so there are multiple possibilities. Cat and dog fleas are commonly blamed for "sand flea" bites from small biting flies found in coastal areas.

Chigoe (Tunga penetrans) is a type of insect found in tropical areas. This too is sometimes incorrectly called a sand flea. Tungiasis is the skin disorder caused by these fleas. Reports of individuals in North America are from tourists to other areas of the world. The adults burrow into the host's skin, usually the feet.


The Joshua tree is also called izote de desierto (Spanish, "desert dagger"). [9] It was first formally described in the botanical literature as Yucca brevifolia by George Engelmann in 1871 as part of the Geological Exploration of the 100th meridian (or "Wheeler Survey"). [10]

The name "Joshua tree" is commonly said to have been given by a group of Mormon settlers crossing the Mojave Desert in the mid-19th century: The tree's role in guiding them through the desert combined with its unique shape reminded them of a biblical story in which Joshua keeps his hands reached out for an extended period of time to guide the Israelites in their conquest of Canaan (Joshua 8:18–26). [11] [12] [13] Further, the shaggy leaves may have provided the appearance of a beard. [14] However, no direct or contemporary attestation of this origin exists, and the name Joshua tree is not recorded until after Mormon contact [11] [15] moreover, the physical appearance of the Joshua tree more closely resembles a similar story told of Moses. [16]

Ranchers and miners who were contemporaneous with the Mormon immigrants used the trunks and branches as fencing and for fuel for ore-processing steam engines. They referred to these fallen or collapsed Joshua trees as tevis stumps. [17] [ failed verification ]

In addition to the autonymic subspecies Y. b. subsp. brevifolia, two other subspecies have been described: [18] Y. b. subsp. herbertii (Webber's yucca or Herbert Joshua tree) and Y. b. subsp. jaegeriana (the Jaeger Joshua tree or Jaeger's Joshua tree or pygmae yucca), though both are sometimes treated as varieties [9] [19] [20] or forms. [21] Y.b. subsp. jaegeriana has also been treated as its own species. [22]

Joshua trees are fast growers for a desert species new seedlings may grow at an average rate of 7.6 cm (3.0 in) per year in their first 10 years, then only about 3.8 cm (1.5 in) per year. [23] The trunk consists of thousands of small fibers and lacks annual growth rings, making determining the tree's age difficult. This tree has a top-heavy branch system, but also what has been described as a "deep and extensive" root system, with roots reaching down to 11 m (36 ft). [2] If it survives the rigors of the desert, it can live for hundreds of years some specimens survive a thousand years. The tallest trees reach about 15 m (49 ft). New plants can grow from seed, but in some populations, new stems grow from underground rhizomes that spread out around the parent tree.

The evergreen leaves are dark green, linear, bayonet-shaped, 15–35 cm long, and 7–15 mm broad at the base, tapering to a sharp point they are borne in a dense spiral arrangement at the apex of the stems. The leaf margins are white and serrated.

Flowers typically appear from February to late April, in panicles 30–55 cm tall and 30–38 cm broad, the individual flowers erect, 4–7 cm tall, with six creamy white to green tepals. The tepals are lanceolate and are fused to the middle. The fused pistils are 3 cm tall and the stigma cavity is surrounded by lobes. The semi-fleshy fruit that is produced is green-brown, elliptical, and contains many flat seeds. Joshua trees usually do not branch until after they bloom (though branching may also occur if the growing tip is destroyed by the yucca-boring weevil), and they do not bloom every year. Like most desert plants, their blooming depends on rainfall at the proper time. They also need a winter freeze before they bloom.

Once they bloom, the flowers are pollinated by the yucca moth (Tegeticula synthetica), which spreads pollen while laying eggs inside the flower. The larvae feed on the seeds, but enough seeds remain to reproduce. The Joshua tree is also able to actively abort ovaries in which too many eggs have been produced.

The Joshua tree is native to the southwestern United States (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and northwestern Mexico. [6] This range mostly coincides with the geographical reach of the Mojave Desert, [2] where it is considered one of the major indicator species for the desert. It occurs at elevations between 400 and 1,800 m (1,300 and 5,900 ft). [24]

Conservation status Edit

Joshua trees are one of the species predicted to have their range reduced and shifted by climate change. [25] Concern remains that they will be eliminated from Joshua Tree National Park, with ecological research suggesting a high probability that their populations will be reduced by 90% of their current range by the end of the 21st century, [26] [27] [28] thus fundamentally transforming the ecosystem of the park. Also, concern exists about the ability of the species to migrate to favorable climates due to the extinction of the giant Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotheriops shastensis) 13,000 years ago ground sloth dung has been found to contain Joshua tree leaves, fruits, and seeds, suggesting that the sloths might have been key to the trees' dispersal. [26] [27]

Different forms of the species are cultivated, including smaller plants native from the eastern part of the species range. These smaller plants grow 2.5 m tall and branch when about 1 m tall. [29] Red-shafted flickers make nests in the branches, which are later used by other birds. [30]

Cahuilla Native Americans, who have lived in the Southwestern United States for generations, identify this plant as a valuable resource and call it hunuvat chiy’a or humwichawa. Their ancestors used the leaves of Y. brevifolia to weave sandals and baskets, in addition to harvesting the seeds and flower buds for meals. Native Americans also used the reddish roots to make dye. [30] Yucca tree roots have saponin glycosides. [31]

Soledad Mountain project (Victory), Soledad Mountain deposit, Soledad Mountain (Butte Mountain), Mojave, Mojave-Rosamond District (Mojave District), Kern Co., California, USA

A Au-Ag mine project to opencast mine the Soledad Mountain deposit, located in sec. 5, T10N, R12E, SBM, with it's center lying between Soledad Mountain and Standard Hill, on private land. Owned & operated by the Golden Queen Mining Company, Ltd. (100%), Washington (1996). MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 1,000 meters. Development was planned for early 1997 with production in 1998. The minable reserves were defined November, 1996. The reserves may have increased prior to production.

Updated data on project status since USGS MRDS file was updated:

The Soledad Mountain Project (the “Project”) is a gold-silver project located is located 5 miles south of the town of Mojave in Kern County, southern California. The Project uses conventional open pit mining methods and the cyanide heap leach and Merrill-Crowe processes to recover gold and silver from crushed, agglomerated ore.

Gold and silver production is projected to average approximately 74k oz and 781k oz respectively per year although this is expected to fluctuate from year to year depending upon the ore head grades. Gold and silver production is projected to be 807k oz of gold and 8.3MM oz of silver over a period of

The Soledad Mountain gold-silver project is a fully permitted, open-pit, heap-leach gold and silver project being developed in Mojave, Kern County, California, US. The project is a 50-50 joint venture operation of Golden Queen Mining (GQM), and Gauss, which was owned by Leucadia National Corporation and Auvergne.

The Kern County Planning Commission approved the project in April 2010. Construction of the mine started in July 2013 and the final construction engineering designs were completed in 2014. The project is expected to start production in late 2015.

The gold-silver mine is expected to produce an annual average of 74,000oz of gold and 781,000oz of silver over its mine life of 12 years.

This project was planned to subhume numerous of the old mines on these summits. The total area of the project was not known as of November, 1996. It was speculated that it could be all of Soledad Mountain, covering sections 5, 6, 7, 8 & 18, or just sections 5 & 6, the northern part of the mountain, which would include the Elephant Eagle, Golden Queen and Bobtail Mines. The company was attempting to acquire the Karma and Wegmann properties.

Local rocks include Quaternary alluvium and marine deposits.

Workings include surface openings/planned openings. The mining method was to be an open pit. The project is equipped with a leach plant (subcategory: Hydromet). The milling method is heap leach-electrowin. The stripping ratio was stated as 2.49:1 (waste to ore).

Reserve-Resource data are found in: Randol Mining Directory, 1996/97, U.S. Mines & Mining Companies: 167, 168.

Reserves and resources: in-situ (estimated year = 1996): demonstrated reserves: 15,600,000 metric tons of ore total resources: 15,600,000 metric tons of ore. Au at 0.994 grams per metric ton Ag at 18.2 grams per metric ton.

In-situ (estimated year = 1996): demonstrated reserves: 22,498,182 metric tons of ore total resources: 22,498,182 metric tons of ore. Au at 0.76 grams per metric ton Ag at 11.48 grams per metric ton.

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