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Simple Mendelian sex-linked chromosome fruit fly question

Simple Mendelian sex-linked chromosome fruit fly question


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From my molecular biology textbook:

When red-eyed flies (dominant) were mated with white-eyed flies (recessive), most, but not all, of the F1 progeny were red eyed. Furthermore, when the red-eyed males of the F1 generation were mated with their red-eyed sisters, they produced about one-quarter white-eyed males, but no white-eyed females. In other words, the eye color phenotype was sex-linked.

First, wouldn't recombination scramble the eye color alleles among the sex chromosomes?

Secondly, even without recombination, the F1 generation will be heterozygous and all F1 flies will have white and red alleles. Some F1 males will have a white X and some F1 females will have a white X, in which case it should be possibly to have an F2 white fly.

Can someone explain this?


I think the text is slightly misleading. But before going into the detail genetics of eye color let's answer your first question.

First, wouldn't recombination scramble the eye color alleles among the sex chromosomes?

TwoXchromosomes do recombine but oneXand oneYchromosome do not recombine (to the exception of the so-called pseudo'autosomal region).

I am not sure why recombination would change anything here. I think the eye color of flies in determined by a single locus.

How is this possible?

Let's go through the text slowly because I think the text is a little misleading. I am suggesting the only scenario I could think of that would explain the observed pattern. Note that this scenario also depends on the interpretation of the text and I would need more info on the experience to make sure my interpretation is right.

When he mated red-eyed flies (dominant) with white-eyed flies (recessive), most, but not all, of the F1 progeny were red eyed.

Actually, only males are sometimes white eyed here. And to be more accurate, if sex was uncorrelated form eye color in the parental lines, then half of the males should have white-eyed.

What was happening here is that red is dominant, white is recessive and the locus for eye color exists only on theXchromosome. As a consequence, all F1 females are now heterozygous (and display the dominant red-eyed phenotype) and all males are hemizygous, half of them having the red-eyed phenotype while the other half have the white-eyed phenotype.

Furthermore, when Morgan mated the red-eyed males of the F1 generation with their red-eyed sisters, [… ]

Let's forget about the white-eyed males from above, we will just cross the red-eyed males with their sisters.

they produced about one-quarter white-eyed males, but no white-eyed females.

Bythey produced about one-quarter white-eyed maleswhat is meant is that a quarter of all individuals were white-eyed males. That is half of the males were white-eyed. The other three quarters of the individuals were red-eyed.

The males received theirXchromosome from their mother only (as they can only receive theYchromosome from their father). Half of the males have therefore received the white-eyed allele while the other half have recevied the red-eyed allele. For the females, they all received from their mother either a white-eyed allele from their mother or a red-eyed allele. As we selected only father that had red eyes in the previous step, all father carry exclusively the red-eyed allele. As a consequence, all females receive a red-eyed allele from their father. Therefore half the females are homozygous red-eyed or heterozygous. In any case, all females are red-eyed.


In the first cross, if we talk of a single mating pair of flies, one parent is red eyed, one is white eyed. The ambiguity about sex leaves two options, 1) red eyed male crossed to white eyed female, 2) white eyed male cross to red eyed female. If it were the former (red eye male) then the mother must have two X chromosomes both of which have do not carry the dominant red eye allele, and all daughters would be red eyed and all sons white eyed (their X always comes from the mother).

If it were the latter (white eye male) that would leave two further possibilities, mothers are homo- or heterozygous for the dominant red eye allele. If the mother is homozygous for the red allele then all offspring should have red eyes, all will receive an X that carries the dominant red eye allele. If the mother is heterozygous then half of the offspring will be red eyed and half white eyed, because both of the fathers sex chromosomes do not have the red allele (the X and the Y) and only one of the mothers carries it.

In the exercise, you have some white eyed flies in the first offspring, but not all, and most are red eyed. Given the wording of the question (that red eyed flies were mated to white eyed flies, and not a red eyed fly was mated to a white eyed fly) I would suggest that the first generation was produced by crossing multiple red eyed females to multiple white eyed males, and that the females were a mixture of hetero- and homozygotes. Therefore some of the offspring were white eyed. The point being, with the first cross it is impossible to tell whether the females used were each hetero- or homozygotes, you can't deduce their genotype.


In the second cross, both parents have red eyes. What this tells you is that the fathers have an X chromosome with the dominant red eye allele, and the mothers have at least one X with the dominant red eye allele. They produce sons and daughters, among which, 1/4 are white eyed males, and none are white eyed females. The implied/logical further outcome is then that 1/4 of the offspring were red eyed males, and 1/2 (2/4) were red eyed females. In the second cross the mothers must be heterozygous (have just one red eye carrying X chromosome). The key difference here is that you can establish the genotype of the parental flies.

The cross below shows this. The sons, who inherit an X from their mother and Y from their father, are white eyed half of the time because there is a 50% chance of inheriting a red eye X from the mother and 0% chance of inheriting a red eye X from the father. Females are always red eyed because the X comes from the father, and he has only one X (which carries the red eyed allele). Half of the daughters will be heterozygous, and half homozygous, for the red eye allele, but it is dominant so all have the red eye phenotype.


I assume that recombination cannot occur in males (D. melanogaster has no recombination in males) and therefore has nothing to do with the solution, but that depends which species of fruit fly the example refers to - could you clarify? It appears this is this book, and therefore it is D. melanogaster.


Why are fruit flies used in Mendelian genetics?

Read, more on it here. Considering this, why are fruit flies used for genetic research?

Benefits of the fruit fly 75 per cent of the genes that cause disease in humans are also found in the fruit fly. Fruit fly are small (3 mm long) but not so small that they can't be seen without a microscope. This allows scientists to keep millions of them in the laboratory at a time.

Subsequently, question is, why did Morgan Choose fruit flies for his genetic studies? Morgan chose the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, for his genetic studies. Morgan's crucial, chromosome theory-verifying experiments began when he found a mutation in a gene affecting fly eye color. This mutation made a fly's eyes white, rather than their normal red.

Also, why do you have to use virgin females in fruit fly genetic crosses?

It was important to have virgin females for the first cross to ensure that the offspring are the result of the desired cross. It was not necessary to isolate virgin females for the second cross because the only male flies to which they had been exposed were also members of the F1 generation.

How are fruit flies created?

Fruit flies come from the up to 500 eggs adults lay. And, they can live off of any moist, fermented substance. All that they require is a moist area of fermenting stuff. That stuff can be ripened fruits or vegetables, as well as drains, garbage disposals, empty bottles and cans, trash bags, or cleaning rags and mops.


Genetics PPT Questions

4. When did Mendel perform his experiments & how many plants did he grow?

5. What did Mendel notice about offspring traits?

6. How is Mendel referred to today?

7. In what country did Mendel do his research on peas?

8. Mendel stated that physical traits were inherited as _______________.

9. Today we know that particles are actually what?

10. Define these three terms:
a. trait –

11. Name & describe two types of genetic crosses.

12. What is used to solve genetic crosses?

13. Sketch a Punnett square & show how they are used to solve a genetics problems.

14. Use a Punnett square to solve a cross between two parents that both have the genotype Yy.

15. What are alleles & what are the two forms?

16. Explain the difference between dominant & recessive alleles.

17. Using a letter of the alphabet, show how each allele would be represented.

18. What is a genotype and write 3 possible genotypes?

19. What is a phenotype and write possible phenotypes for your genotypes in question 18?

20. Using these alleles, R = red flower and r = yellow flowers, write all possible genotypes & phenotypes.

21. What are homozygous genotypes?

22. Write a homozygous dominant genotype.

23. Write a homozygous recessive genotype.

24. What is meant by a heterozygous genotype?

25. Write a heterozygous genotype.

26. Heterozygous genotypes are also called _____________.

27. What two things actually determine an organism’s characteristics?

28. Give 4 reasons that Mendel used garden peas, Pisum sativum, for his experiments.

29. Name the male and female parts of a flowering plant and explain how pollination occurs.

30. What is the difference between self and cross pollination?

31. Explain how Mendel cross pollinated his pea plants.

32. How did Mendel get pure plants?

33. Name 8 pea plant traits and give the dominant & recessive form of each.

34. How did Mendel’s experimental results compare to the theoretical genotypic ratios? Explain.

36. What is the F1 generation?

37. What is the F2 generation?

38. What results from this cross — TT x tt?

39. What results do you get from crossing two hybrids (Tt x Tt)?

40. Show all your work for solving a P1 monohybrid cross for seed shape.
Trait:
Alleles:

P1 cross: __________ x __________

Genotype ____________
Phenotype ___________
G. Ratio _____________
P. Ratio _____________

41. The offspring of the above cross are called the _____ generation.

42. Show all your work for solving a F1 monohybrid cross for seed shape.
Trait:
Alleles:

F1 cross: __________ x __________

Genotype ____________
Phenotype ___________
G. Ratio _____________
P. Ratio _____________

43. Show all your work for solving both F2 monohybrid crosses for seed shape.

F2 cross: ________ x ________ F2 cross: ________ x ________

Genotype ____________ Genotype ____________
Phenotype ___________ Phenotype ___________
G. Ratio _____________ G. Ratio _____________
P. Ratio _____________ P. Ratio _____________

Complete the following question:

44. _________ are responsible for inherited traits.

45. Phenotype is based on _______________.

46. Each trait requires _____ genes, one from each ____________.

47. State the Law of Dominance and give an example.

48. State the Law of Segregation and tell when alleles are “recombined”.

49. State the Law of Independent assortment & tell what type of crosses show this.

50. Using the formula 2n where n = the number of heterozygotes, tell how many gametes will be produced by each of the following allele combinations:
a. RrYy
b. AaBbCCDd
c. MmNnOoPPQQRrssTtQq

51. What are the possible allele combinations in the egg and sperm from the following cross — RrYy x RrYy.

52. Show how to work an F1 dihybrid cross for seed shape & seed color.


Blog Archives

DrosophiLab is a brilliant, free and downloadable piece of software that allows students and teachers to edit fruit flies and carry out crosses. The teacher can use the chromosome editor to set up parent flies of any genotype and there are 20 genes and traits represented, on four chromosomes. This allows for simple monohybrid crosses, sex-linkage, gene linkage and many other combinations – so the problems you set can be differentiated by level. There is also a password-protected teacher setting, to restrict students’ access to results tables and chromosome maps (so they have to work it out for themselves!).

Here are our class resources:

Protocol sheets: DrosophiLab HL, DrosophiLab SL (pdf)

Chi-Calc (Chi-squared calculator, .xlsx)

How to catch and observe Drosophila:

When trying to observe the flies for real, think about the following questions:

– How are you ensuring ethical treatment of the animals?

– How long would it take to determine the phenotypes of the number of flies you have set for your investigations?

– What difficulties do you encounter when observing the flies?

– What are the limitations or sources of error that might affect the reliability of your results?

Why are fruit flies so important in science?

Science loves fruit flies, and there was even a fruit fly Nobel awarded in 1995 for studies in embryonic development. This links neatly to the assessment statements regarding the differentiation of cells through expression of different genes.

Fruit fly cells are relatively easily observed, and Drosophila makes for an ideal model organism for Mendelian genetics as it has a short life cycle, reproduces quickly and is easily phenotyped.


A RECIPROCAL cross occurs when you cross a male wild type fly with a female mutant fly. You then do the opposite, where you cross a female wild type fly with a male mutant. These two crosses will help you determine the method of inheritance, particularly if you are unsure whether a gene is located on a sex chromosome. You already know that white eye color is located on the sex chromosome, the next tasks will illustrate this pattern of inheritance.

1) What is your prediction if you cross a wild type male (X R Y) with a mutant female (X r X r )? Show the genotypes and the punnett square below. What ratio is expected among your offspring.

Expected number of white eye males _____ Expected number of wild type males _____
Expected number of white eye females ____ Expected number of wild type females _____

Open the chromosome editor and create the following flies and save them to your fly file. Label them in such a way that you can easily find them again for future crosses (example: female_wh). These flies will save to your documents. You may want to make a separate folder for them just to be organized.

A female with white eyes (ww) | Female with red eyes (homozygous w+w+)
A male with white eyes (w)| Male with red eyes (w+)

Actual number of white eye males ______ Actual number of wild type males _____
Actual number of white eye females _____ Actual number of wild type females ____

Chi Square Value from your cross _____________ Critical Value? ______________


2) What is your prediction if you cross a wild type female (homozygous)with a mutant male? Show the genotypes and the punnet square below. What ratio is expected among your offspring.

Expected number of white eye males _____ Expected number of wild type males _____
Expected number of white eye females ____ Expected number of wild type females _____

Actual number of white eye males ______ Actual number of wild type males _____
Actual number of white eye females _____ Actual number of wild type females ____

Chi Square Value from your cross _____________ Critical Value? ______________


Introduction to Drosophila

We will practice handling and examining Drosophila fruit flies. We will follow the procedures from Mertens and Hammersmith – Investigation 1, with some important modifications. We will use the Carolina Formula 4-24 Instant Drosophila Medium. We will anesthetize flies by cooling 2 (to 2.5) minutes in freezer (no longer or else they die or become sterile) in a vial without food and keep them cool on ice packs rather than using a chemical anesthetic such as ether. Flies are cultured at 20-25°C in the incubators provided (these are preset at the required temperature and require no adjustment).

Techniques for handling Drosophila

Flies must be anesthetized in order to keep them inactive during examination or while they are being transferred into culture vials for mating. You have been provided with plastic dishes with ice, plastic containers for ice water baths, plastic petri dishes and white filter paper.

Use the following procedure to anesthetize the flies:

1. Obtain a plastic dish with ice and place a petri dish with one piece of filter paper in it on the ice surface.

2. Shake the flies down into the bottom of the culture vial by tapping the vial, then remove the plug and quickly transfer the flies into an empty vial.

3. Insert the vial with the transferred flies into the freezer.

4. When the flies in the vial have stopped moving about 2 minutes (check them every 15 sec after 2 minutes), and then pour a few of them out onto the filter paper in the petri dish.

Do not leave flies in a freezer for more than a 2.5 minutes because they may die or become sterile.

5. Flies will normally remain anesthetized if kept on an ice bath or block.

Culture vial preparation:

1. Obtain clean culture vial and foam plug.

2. Add 1 small scoop of dry food to vial.

3. Add 1 small scoop of tap water to vial.

4. Add two or three (2 or 3) grains of dry yeast to the vial.

5. Dry off any water on inside exposed walls of vial with a Kim-wipe.

6. Place foam plug in the vial to keep wandering Drosophila out.

2. Transfer flies to an empty vial with brush.

3. After the flies wake up they can then be added to the food vials.

4. Label vial with date and types of male and female flies used.

5. Subculture the mutant and wild stocks every one to two weeks never keep the vials with

cultures longer than 3 weeks.

Setting up reciprocal crosses:

1. Clear adults from vials once pupal cases form. (Subculture if needed)

2. Collect virgin females within six to seven hours of clearing vials.

3. Place virgin females in vial with food. (Up to 8 per vial, based on availability)

4. Add males of other stock try to wait before adding males so the females will be strong use

slightly less males than females.

5. Label vials properly. Two vials for each reciprocal cross are recommended.

6. Clear adults when pupal cases appear. (Set up in another vial if desired.)

7. Wait for F1 to emerge and score.

8. Collect data on the first 100 Fl’s flies to emerge from each reciprocal cross.

9. Tabulate information on the Fl generation flies with regard to sex and phenotype for each

10. If conducting testcrosses, then F1 virgin females need to be collected.

11. When setting up the F1 flies for the F2 generation set up a new labelled vial then add an equal number of F1 males and females. The female flies do not need to be virgins, because it does not matter if mating occurred before or after the flies are put into the new vials as this is a sibmating.

12. Once again, clear the adults when the pupal cases appear.

13. Collect data on the first 100 F2 generation flies to emerge from each reciprocal cross.

(14) Tabulate information on the F2 generation flies with regard to sex and phenotype for each reciprocal cross.

Keep records of your crosses in Table 1.2 on (page 9-new book) (page 8 old book), or you can

set up the information for in a MS Word file. Keep your records on the methods and data for

your crosses for the F1 and F2 generation to write up later on.

Fly Lab report is worth a 100 points. It should be made into a word document which you will need to upload to a Turn-it in link on Canvas. The link only takes one document, so make sure everything you need to include in the report is one single document.

We are using ether not freeze!!!

We are using ether not freeze!!!

We are using ether not freeze!!!

one chart one page,at least 10 pages

APA Style will be used in the Fly Lab Report. Both running head and in-text citations are needed. The font should be uniform. Choose either Times New Roman or Calibri as the font of your document. The font size can be 12 or 13. The title can be bolded on the same font sizes. Paragraph spacing should be double.Margins on all sides are necessary. The alignment should be justified. Page numbers should be present on the main section of the report.

Fly Lab Report Guide

Fly Lab report is worth a 100 points. It should be made into a word document which you will need to upload to a Turn-it in link on Canvas. The link only takes one document, so make sure everything you need to include in the report is one single document.

APA Style will be used in the Fly Lab Report. Both running head and in-text citations are needed. The font should be uniform. Choose either Times New Roman or Calibri as the font of your document. The font size can be 12 or 13. The title can be bolded on the same font sizes. Paragraph spacing should be double. Margins on all sides are necessary. The alignment should be justified. Page numbers should be present on the main section of the report.

The cover page should be double spaced, centered, and include the following information: a title, your name, instructor’s name, class name, and date.

Sections to the report:

There will be four sections in the report:

Write a short background on fruit flies and introduce the theories that is necessary for the project. DO NOT list them out, discuss them in detail. Be sure to have correct in-text citations. You may include pictures or figures to further explain information. If pictures or figures are used, there must be a figure/picture number and a caption.

All materials used in project should be included. In methodology, you should discuss how the experiment was set up and performed. This is where you should introduce the different crosses used in the project.

Form tables and charts to display data collected in the experiment. You should be able to show observed values for your theories. YOU CANNOT HAVE RAW DATA AS YOUR RESULTS! The raw data should be included in an annex after the References page. All tables in Results Section should have a proper table number and title. After each table, there should be a short summary of the information presented in the table.

In the discussion, you should analyze the results from the experiment. You can refer to specific table numbers from the Results section and compare it with expected theoretical values for the theories introduced in the Introduction.

You can add a conclusion section to wrap up the conclusions of your report. Acknowledgement is another section that can be included.

Your references should be on a separate page. At least five references(all from valid and reliable sources), at least two should bepeer- reviewed articles.


How to score full marks on a genetics question in IGCSE Biology? 3.20, 3.23, 3.25

Few things in life are certain, famously just death and taxes. Northampton Town flirting with relegation can perhaps be added to this list. But you can be pretty certain that tucked away somewhere in your iGCSE Biology exam there will be a genetics question that asks you to draw a genetic diagram. There are usually four or even five marks available and so learning how to ensure you get all these marks is vital in your quest for an A* grade.

GCSE candidates are terrible at doing genetic diagrams: they fill the space with messy scribbles, doodles, strange tables and lines and then confidently write 3:1 at the bottom… Not a recipe for success. So learn how to do it, be neat, take your time and you can guarantee full marks.

If the question doesn’t do it for you, you should start by defining what the letters you will use for the alleles. If one allele is dominant over the other, it is conventional to use the upper case letter for the dominant allele, the lower case letter for the recessive one. It will tell you in the question which allele is dominant.

Start your genetic diagram by writing the phenotype of the parents in the cross.

e.g. Parental Phenotype: Tall Tall

Underneath the phenotype, write the genotype of the parents.

Then you need to think about which alleles are present in the gametes. Gametes are haploid and so will contain one of each pair of homologous chromosomes – in this example there can only be one allele in each gamete (as we are only looking at one gene)

Next show random fertilisation. I think it is much better to draw a Punnett square that has the male gametes down one side, the female gametes down the other and then carefully pair them up. This is a stage where mistakes can be made if you rush so however simple you think this process is, take your time…..

Finally you need to copy out the offspring genotypes from your Punnet square, like so

Offspring Genotypes: TT Tt Tt tt

And underneath each one, write the offspring phenotype

Offspring Phenotypes: Tall Tall Tall Dwarf

Finally, answer the question. If it asks for a probability, express your answer as either a percentage or a decimal or a fraction. So if I were asked what is the probability of a homozygous pea being produced, the answer is 50% or 0.5 or 1/2

Follow these rules and you will always score full marks – happy days……..


Why do otherwise rational, sensible people choose to reject good science in some cases and believe unfounded claims in others?

With apparently eroding trust in government and authority, people are looking to less reliable sources of information – which is particularly dangerous when it comes to health. On the one hand, they believe stories such as ‘Facebook causes cancer‘, or in the unproven alt-meds of homeopathy and vitamin supplements, yet they reject solid scientific evidence with regard to vaccine safety, anti-retroviral drugs or GM crops.

As Michael Specter says in this TED 2010 talk, “We hate BigPharma… and we run from it into the arms of Big Placebo*.”

“The idea that we should not allow science to do its job because we are afraid is really very deadening, and it’s preventing millions of people from prospering.”

From a TOK perspective, how does this talk highlight the clash between emotion and reason in the ways of knowing? (Or as Specter says, “You have the right to your own beliefs- but not your own facts.”)

*The industry in non-proven remedies and vitamin supplements runs to billions of dollars a year.


X-Linked Traits

Eye color in Drosophila was one of the first X-linked traits to be identified. Thomas Hunt Morgan mapped this trait to the X chromosome in 1910. Like humans, Drosophila males have an XY chromosome pair, and females are XX. In flies, the wild-type eye color is red (X W ) and it is dominant to white eye color (X w ) (Figure). Because of the location of the eye-color gene, reciprocal crosses do not produce the same offspring ratios. Males are said to be hemizygous , because they have only one allele for any X-linked characteristic. Hemizygosity makes the descriptions of dominance and recessiveness irrelevant for XY males. Drosophila males lack a second allele copy on the Y chromosome that is, their genotype can only be X W Y or X w Y. In contrast, females have two allele copies of this gene and can be X W X W , X W X w , or X w X w .

In Drosophila, several genes determine eye color. The genes for white and vermilion eye colors are located on the X chromosome. Others are located on the autosomes. Clockwise from top left are brown, cinnabar, sepia, vermilion, white, and red. Red eye color is wild-type and is dominant to white eye color.

In an X-linked cross, the genotypes of F1 and F2 offspring depend on whether the recessive trait was expressed by the male or the female in the P1 generation. With regard to Drosophila eye color, when the P1 male expresses the white-eye phenotype and the female is homozygous red-eyed, all members of the F1 generation exhibit red eyes (Figure). The F1 females are heterozygous (X W X w ), and the males are all X W Y, having received their X chromosome from the homozygous dominant P1 female and their Y chromosome from the P1 male. A subsequent cross between the X W X w female and the X W Y male would produce only red-eyed females (with X W X W or X W X w genotypes) and both red- and white-eyed males (with X W Y or X w Y genotypes). Now, consider a cross between a homozygous white-eyed female and a male with red eyes. The F1 generation would exhibit only heterozygous red-eyed females (X W X w ) and only white-eyed males (X w Y). Half of the F2 females would be red-eyed (X W X w ) and half would be white-eyed (X w X w ). Similarly, half of the F2 males would be red-eyed (X W Y) and half would be white-eyed (X w Y).

Art Connection

Punnett square analysis is used to determine the ratio of offspring from a cross between a red-eyed male fruit fly and a white-eyed female fruit fly.

What ratio of offspring would result from a cross between a white-eyed male and a female that is heterozygous for red eye color?

Discoveries in fruit fly genetics can be applied to human genetics. When a female parent is homozygous for a recessive X-linked trait, she will pass the trait on to 100 percent of her offspring. Her male offspring are, therefore, destined to express the trait, as they will inherit their father's Y chromosome. In humans, the alleles for certain conditions (some forms of color blindness, hemophilia, and muscular dystrophy) are X-linked. Females who are heterozygous for these diseases are said to be carriers and may not exhibit any phenotypic effects. These females will pass the disease to half of their sons and will pass carrier status to half of their daughters therefore, recessive X-linked traits appear more frequently in males than females.

In some groups of organisms with sex chromosomes, the sex with the non-homologous sex chromosomes is the female rather than the male. This is the case for all birds. In this case, sex-linked traits will be more likely to appear in the female, in which they are hemizygous.


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