What type of insect in this?

What type of insect in this?

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Can anyone tell what of kind of insect is in this image ? They have been showing up in my room for the past month; never happened before that. The room is generally hot during daytime.


Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys):

Source: Brown marmorated stink bug (wikipedia)

That is a "shield bug" in the order Hemiptera. They're often called stink bugs because they release noxious chemicals for defense. I agree that it does look like the brown marmorated stink bug, but there are several species that look similar. Depending on where you live, the brown marmorated stink bug may be an invasive species. The links below show how to distinguish them, and give info about the invasive species. They're showing up in your room because they over-winter in houses, and become active at warmer temperatures. They can become a serious problem due to forming large colonies, so you may want to look for obvious places they could be getting in, and seal up the entries. Once they start hanging out in your house, they attract others with scents. The Farm and Dairy article has a simple, inexpensive cleaner recipe to remove the chemicals they release to attract more stink bugs.

Identifying stink bug species, including marmorated stink bug:

The brown marmorated stink bug as an invasive species:

How and why stink bugs get into your house, and how to keep them out:

Students can sign up for ENT 101 for 3 credits. Find full registration instructions here.

About the Course!

Bugs 101: Insect-Human Interactions is a 12-lesson course that provides online learners with an introduction to the biology, diversity, and ecology of insects and their roles in human society.

Students will examine the importance of insects in processes that affect humans such as:

  • nutrient cycling,
  • pollination,
  • plant life and crop damage,
  • disease transmission,
  • and forensics.

Students will hear from Canadian experts in different insect-related fields-such as forest management and insects in indigenous cultures-and virtually-visit exciting locations such as the Royal Alberta Museum, an Albertan honey farm, and even an insect cafe. Learners will gain an understanding of the helpful and harmful roles of insects in agricultural and forest ecosystems and get a chance to apply the principles of integrated pest management in an interactive learning simulation.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course, students will gain a recognition of the boundless diversity and incredible adaptability of some of the most successful animals to ever inhabit the earth, as well as how humans have made insects integral parts of our cultures, economies, and ecosystems.

After completing this course, you should be able to:

  • Describe the evolutionary relationships between insects and their arthropod relatives
  • Inventory major groups of insects and their diversity
  • Demonstrate evolutionary adaptations that make insects successful
  • Discuss insect biology and insect-human interactions
  • Evaluate positive and negative interactions between insects and humans
  • Propose practical and symbolic roles insects play in human societies

Course Format


None! Just an interest in the natural world and a willingness to learn!

For the free, Coursera version

12 graded modules with graded, end-of-module quizzes, supplemented with pass/fail interactive learning objects and formative, in-video questions. Certificates are available upon completion for a fee.

Time Commitment:
2-3 hours/week

For the for-credit version

3 credit version will be available to University of Alberta students in Fall 2019 (Class capped at 100 students).

Take the course for free & gain insight into the importance of insects


Maya Evenden, Professor Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta

Dr. Evenden received an NSERC University Faculty Award to join the University of Alberta in 2003. Her research interests focus on the chemical and behavioural ecology of insects considered to be pests of agriculture, forestry and horticulture in western Canada. The research in her laboratory contributes to the development of sustainable pest management systems. At the University of Alberta, Dr. Evenden teaches: Insect Biology, Insects in Managed Ecosystems, and Chemical Ecology. Dr. Evenden has served as the President of the Entomological Societies of Alberta (2006) and Canada (2010), as well as the International Branch of the Entomological Society of America (2018). She is currently a member of the editorial board on 5 scientific journals. She enjoys being with her family, camping, biking and travelling.


Ilan Domnich recently completed his B.Sc. in Animal Biology, with a specialisation in Invertebrate Zoology. A passionate, young entomologist, Ilan's enthusiasm for insects is unparalleled. He has volunteered as an invertebrate specialist at the Royal Alberta Museum for the past six years, caring for live animals in the collection and contributing to outreach events. Ilan also has a degree in Finance from the University of Alberta, with a minor in Accounting. In his free time, Ilan works on his art and enjoys exploring the outdoors.

Joelle Lemmen-Lechelt completed her Ph.D. in Ecology in Maya Evenden's Insect Chemical Ecology Lab at the University of Alberta. She also recently completed a post-doctoral research position at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, where she studied the behaviour and chemical ecology of an invasive fruit fly, the spotted wing Drosophila. Joelle is currently a Biology Instructor at Red Deer College, and believes strongly in the importance of science research, and of using that knowledge for education, outreach and the development of applied technologies. She loves to be outside, and enjoys running, hiking and biking in nature.

Valerie Marshall is a young ecologist who completed her Bachelor of Science in Ecology at the University of Alberta. After working closely with Maya Evenden in her insect chemical ecology lab, Valerie discovered her love for insects. She has also volunteered as an invertebrate specialist at the Royal Alberta Museum, feeding and caring for the predaceous creatures in the Bug Gallery. When not in the field, lab, or office Valerie likes to hike, climb, read and knit.

Journal of Insect Physiology

All aspects of insect physiology are published in this journal which will also accept papers on the physiology of other arthropods, if the referees consider the work to be of general interest. The coverage includes endocrinology (in relation to moulting, reproduction and metabolism), pheromones, neurobiology.

All aspects of insect physiology are published in this journal which will also accept papers on the physiology of other arthropods, if the referees consider the work to be of general interest. The coverage includes endocrinology (in relation to moulting, reproduction and metabolism), pheromones, neurobiology (cellular, integrative and developmental), physiological pharmacology, nutrition (food selection, digestion and absorption), homeostasis, excretion, reproduction and behaviour. Papers covering functional genomics and molecular approaches to physiological problems will also be included. Communications on structure and applied entomology can be published if the subject matter has an explicit bearing on the physiology of arthropods. Review articles and novel method papers are also welcomed.

This journal is available at a special rate to members of the Entomological Society of America

Benefits to authors
We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services .

Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our Support Center

Biologists Discover Previously Unknown Cellular Structure in Retina of Insect-Eating Birds

A team of researchers has found a novel retinal structure in the eyes of New World flycatchers. Named the megamitochondria-small oil droplet complex (MMOD complex), this structure may allow these sit-and-wait birds to see their world in a different way from other animals, and help them find and track insect prey more easily.

This light microscopy image of the Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) retina shows the five traditional oil droplet types and the additional orange, conical structures belonging to the newly described photoreceptor. Image credit: Tyrrell et al, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51774-w.

Most birds have four cone photoreceptors for color vision, a fifth cone for non-color-related tasks, and a rod for night vision.

Each cone photoreceptor cell contains a spherical structure called an oil droplet, which filters light before it is converted to electrical signals by the visual pigments, enhancing color discrimination.

Instead of an oil droplet, the MMOD complex — found in two species of New World flycatchers of the genus Empidonax (E. virescens and E. minimus) — contains a high- energy-producing cellular structure called megamitochondria surrounded by hundreds of small, orange-colored droplets.

“We found that Empidonax flycatchers, like all birds, had four single cone photoreceptors that each contained a spherical oil droplet in the inner segment of the photoreceptor,” said senior author Professor Esteban Fernandez-Juricic from the Department of Biological Sciences at Purdue University and colleagues.

“Like other birds, the principal member of the Empidonax double cone also contained a spherical oil droplet. Each type of cone had a different colored oil droplet that could be readily visualized under simple light microscopy.”

“In addition to these five traditional cones and their corresponding oil droplets, we found that the Empidonax flycatcher retina contained what is probably an additional cone photoreceptor with a novel, orange, conical structure in the apical end of the inner segment.”

“Photoreceptors with this organelle lacked the oil droplet that is present in the other cone types.”

Transmission electron microscopy image of the orange, conical structures reveals that they are electron-dense megamitochondria surrounded by many small oil droplets the white asterisk denotes the megamitochondria, the orange arrows denote the small oil droplets that provide the orange coloration seen in the image above, and the blue arrow indicates a traditional oil droplet from the neighboring photoreceptor. Image credit: Tyrrell et al, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51774-w.

The researchers studied the MMOD complex using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and microspectrophotometry.

They found that this structure works as long-pass filters, letting light with wavelengths longer the 565 nm — or yellow, orange and red — pass through, and absorbing the shorter wavelengths of green, blue and violet.

“The retina of flycatchers, which are sit-and-wait predatory birds, evolved a novel cellular structure in a photoreceptor that may allow them to detect, track and capture fast-moving prey, like insects,” Professor Fernandez-Juricic said.

“This new cone organelle has not been reported before in this form in any other vertebrate retina and may allow these birds to see their world in a different way from other animals,” added Dr. Luke Tyrrell, a researcher in the Department of Biological Science at SUNY Plattsburgh.

The results are published in a paper in the journal Scientific Reports.

Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

This international journal publishes original contributions and mini-reviews in the fields of insect biochemistry and insect molecular biology. Main areas of interest are neurochemistry, hormone and pheromone biochemistry, enzymes and metabolism, hormone action and gene regulation, gene characterization.

This international journal publishes original contributions and mini-reviews in the fields of insect biochemistry and insect molecular biology. Main areas of interest are neurochemistry, hormone and pheromone biochemistry, enzymes and metabolism, hormone action and gene regulation, gene characterization and structure, pharmacology, immunology and cell and tissue culture. Papers on the biochemistry and molecular biology of other groups of arthropods are published if of general interest to the readership. Technique papers will be considered for publication if they significantly advance the field of insect biochemistry and molecular biology in the opinion of the Editors and Editorial Board.

Benefits to authors
We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services .

Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our Support Center


Adults of stored-product insects are between 0.1 and 1.2 centimetres long. They have three pairs of legs, and their bodies are divided into three parts:

  • The head includes the mouthparts and sense organs.
  • The thorax bears the legs and wings.
  • The abdomen contains the reproductive organs.

Adults move in spaces between kernels and can penetrate deeply into a pile of grains or oilseeds, with the exception of moths and spider beetles. Some stored-product insects can fly and are widely distributed. Beetles have poorly developed wings and some species are unable to fly, although the rusty grain beetle and the red flour beetle can fly well.


AbstractIn evolutionary ecology, risk-spreading (i.e. bet-hedging) is the idea that unpredictably variable environments favor genotypes with lower variance in fitness at the cost of lower arithmetic mean fitness. Variance in fitness can be reduced by physiology or behavior that spreads risk of encountering an unfavorable environment over time or space. Such risk-spreading can be achieved by a single phenotype that avoids risks (conservative risk-spreading) or by phenotypic variation expressed by a single genotype (diversified risk-spreading). Across these categories, three types of risk-spreading can be usefully distinguished: temporal, metapopulation, and within-generation. Theory suggests that temporal and metapopulation risk-spreading may work under a broad range of population sizes, but within-generation risk-spreading appears to work only when populations are small. Although genetic polymorphisms have sometimes been treated as risk-spreading, the underlying mechanisms are different, and they often require different conditions for their evolution and thus are better treated separately. I review the types of evidence that could be used to test for risk-spreading and discuss evidence for risk-spreading in facultative diapause, migration polyphenism, spatial distribution of oviposition, egg size, and other miscellaneous traits. Although risk-spreading theory is voluminous and well developed in some ways, rarely has it been used to generate detailed, testable hypotheses about the evolution of risk-spreading. Furthermore, although there is evidence for risk-spreading, particularly in facultative diapause, I have been unable to find any definitive tests with unequivocal results showing that risk-spreading has been a major factor in the evolution of insect behaviors or life histories. To advance our understanding of risk-spreading in the wild, we need (a) explicit empirical models that predict levels of diversifying risk-spreading for several insect populations in several environments that vary in uncertainty, and (b) tests of these models using measurements of phenotypes and their fitnesses over several generations in each environment.

BugInfo Where Do Insects Go in the Winter?

Insects have a variety of methods for surviving the coldness of winter.

Migration is one strategy for escaping the killing temperatures. The Monarch Butterfly is the foremost example of this maneuver, but other insects migrate into northern areas from the southern states in the Spring. Crop pests are the most obvious of these migrants.

Overwintering as Larvae. Many insects successfully pass the winter as immature larvae. The protection of heavy covers of leaf litter or similar shelters protect the woolly bear caterpillar, while other insects replace the water in their bodies with glycerol, a type of antifreeze! Some grubs simply burrow deeper into the soil to escape the cold.

Overwintering as Nymphs. Not many insects are active in the winter, but the nymphs of dragonflies, mayflies and stoneflies live in waters of ponds and streams, often beneath ice. They feed actively and grow all winter to emerge as adults in early spring.

Overwintering as Eggs. Lesser numbers of insects lay eggs which survive the winter. The most prominent insects in this category are Praying Mantids, and the destructive Corn Rootworms also engage in this strategy.

Overwintering as Pupae. Some insects overwinter in the pupal stage, then emerge as adults in the spring. Moths in the Silkworm Family, Saturniidae, may be found attached to food plant branches as pupae in the winter.

Hibernation as Adults. Many insects hibernate as adults. Lady bird beetles are a well-known example, and are sometimes seen in great numbers in the fall as they congregate at high elevations. Many large wasps seek shelter in the eaves and attics of houses or barns. Tree holes, leaf litter, and under logs and rocks are common shelters for overwintering adult insects. The Mourning Cloak Butterfly is usually the first butterfly that is noticed in the Spring, and this is because it hibernates in tree holes or other shelters during the winter. As in some insect larvae, it reduces the water content of its body, and builds up glycerol which acts as an antifreeze. Honey bees stay in hives during the winter, and form clusters when temperatures fall. They also are able to raise the temperature by vibrating wing muscles.

In general, insects are able to survive cold temperatures easiest when the temperatures are stable, not fluctuating through alternate thaws and freezes. Many insects can gain shelter and nourishment through the winter in a variety of micro-habitats. Among these niches are under the soil, inside the wood of logs and trees, and even in plant galls. One kind of fly is known by fishermen to be present in certain galls in winter, and the fly larvae are consequently used as fish-bait. Blankets of snow benefit insects by insulating the ground and keeping the temperature surprisingly constant. Honeybees have been studied during the winter and are found to remain semi-active in hollow trees through the generation of body heat. The consumption of up to 30 pounds of stored honey during the winter months makes this possible. Heat energy is produced by the oxidation of the honey, and circulated throughout the hive by the wing-fanning of worker bees. Insects that are inactive during the winter months undergo a state in which their growth, development, and activities are suspended temporarily, with a metabolic rate that is high enough to keep them alive. This dormant condition is termed diapause. In comparison, vertebrates undergo hibernation, during which they have minor activity and add tissues to their bodies.

Selected References:

Gibo, David L. 1972. "Hibernation sites and temperature tolerance of two species of Vespula and one species of Polistes." New York Entomological Society, Volume 80: 105-108.

Kelsey, Paul M. 1968. "Hibernation and winter withdrawal." The Conservationist, Oct.-Nov.

Lees, A. D. 1956. "The physiology and biochemistry of diapause." Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 1: 1-16.

Palmer, E. Laurence. 1957. "Insect life in winter." Nature Magazine, January.

Parsons, Michael. 1973. "Insect antifreeze." Teen International Entomological Group, winter issue: 13-14.

Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Entomology Section,
National Museum of Natural History, in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services,
Smithsonian Institution

What type of insect in this? - Biology

Phylum ARTHROPODA : Insects, Spiders, Scorpions, Crabs, Shrimp

General characteristics of phylum:

- found in nearly every habitat

Subphylum UNIRAMIA : Insects, Centipedes, Millipedes

General characteristics of Insects (class ):

- Insects are the most successful life form on the planet: they make up more than half of all living things on Earth

- Some experts suggest that there are more than 10 million insects

- Often occur in incredibly large numbers: on an area with a size of a football field, more than 400,000,000 insect species were found

- Largest order: beetle (125 families, one in every four animal species on this planet is a beetle)

- They are ubiquitous: you can find them everywhere on land, but only very few have colonized the sea (Marine Flies)

- Chitinous (hard) exoskeleton, no bones or a skeleton

- Three pairs of jointed legs (6 legs)

- Compound eyes which contain several thousand lenses leading to a larger field of vision

- One of the most diverse group of animals on Earth:

o Represent more than half of all known living organisms

o Found in almost all environments

o Number of extant species of class insecta: 6-10 million

o Represent over 90% of differing life forms on Earth

- Representatives: fleas, moths, flies, wasps, mosquitoes, grasshopper, beetles, cockroaches, termites, butterflies, ants

- Are mostly solitary, but some insects (bees, ants, termites) are social and live in large, well-organized colonies

- Communication occurs in many different ways: males can sense pheromones of female moths over distances of many kilometers (moths), sounds to attract mates (crickets)

- Cuticle: outer layer, made up of epicutle (thin, waxy, water resistant, no chitin) and procuticle (chitinous, thicker, two layers)

o A. head: pair of sensory antenna, pair of compound eyes, and if present, one to three simple eyes and three sets of modified appendages that form the mouth part

o B. thorax: six segmented legs which are used for several things such as running or swimming, and if present, two or four wings

o C. abdomen: consists of eleven segments, contains most of the digestive, respiratory, excretory and reproductive internal structures

- Only invertebrates who can fly, which is very important for their success: muscles are connected to exoskeletons and are able to contract multiple times for each nerve impulse

- Brain and ventral nerve cord

- Same function as in humans

- Most food is ingested in form of macromolecules, proteins, fats, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids and are broken down into smaller parts like amino acids and simple sugars (digestion)

- Main structure: alimentary canal (long enclosed tube running lengthwise through body) directing food from mouth to anus

- Insects also have paired salivary glands and salivary reservoirs found in the thorax

- Some have extra-oral digestion expelling digestive enzymes onto their food to break it down (flies). This has the advantage that insects can extract more nutrients from the food

- Almost all of the digestion takes place in the gut, which is divided into


Catopsis (‘kata‘ means hanging and ‘opsis‘ means appearance) There are around 20 extant species are found in genus catopsis, at least only one thought to be carnivorous plants which is given below.

Genus Catopsis widespread across much of the Latin America from Mexico to Brazil, plus Florida and the West Indies.

Catopsis berteroniana

Catopsis is a genus and berteroniana is a species. It is a monocot angiosperm carnivorous plants. It is commonly known as the powdery strap air plant because powdery substance makes a slippery surface for its prey or insects.

Leaves are overlapped each other and form an urn-like structure that is filled with rainwater and some bacteria. The base of this plant release some acidic substances, which make an acidic medium for the digestion of insects. The plant obtains inorganic nutrients from the degeneration of insects. Mostly inorganic nutrients are phosphorus and nitrogen.

If you are interested also read this post – What helps in digestion, how we get energy