What forms this pad on the side of the face?

What forms this pad on the side of the face?

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I've been trying to figure out this for the best portion of this morning, but what structures are responsible for the pad highlighted in red? (sorry for low quality of picture, was just watching the show at the time)

It's from my understanding that the zygomatic (in green) runs to the edge of the ear in a relative straight line and most muscles have their origins or insertions bellow it. I know there are some fat pads (such as the nasolabial fold in purple) on top of everything on the face, but are these all fat pads that just allign? I've seen this pad on both man and women often, although it seems more proeminent in women.

That padding is apparently from a prominent zygomatic arch also known as high chickbones (pictures).

The bones between the eye, nose and ear are: the zygomatic bone below and behind the eye, the zygomatic process of the frontal bone above/behind the eye and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, which extends toward the ear canal. It makes sense that when the zygomatic bone is more prominent, the zygomatic processes of the connecting bones will be also more prominent and appear as high cheeks.

Image source: Wikimedia, CC license

Here's the photo of Abraham Lincoln from the Wikipedia's article about zygomatic bones:

A Youtube video The Zygomatic Bones and Ogee Curve

Anatomical Directional Terms and Body Planes

Anatomical directional terms are like the directions on a compass rose of a map. Like the directions, North, South, East and West, they can be used to describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures or locations in the body. This is particularly useful when studying anatomy as it provides a common method of communication that helps to avoid confusion when identifying structures.

Also as with a compass rose, each directional term often has a counterpart with converse or opposite meaning. These terms are very useful when describing the locations of structures to be studied in dissections.

Anatomical directional terms can also be applied to the planes of the body. Body planes are used to describe specific sections or regions of the body. Below are examples of some commonly used anatomical directional terms and planes of the body.


Standard anatomical and zoological terms of location have been developed, usually based on Latin and Greek words, to enable all biological and medical scientists, veterinarians, doctors and anatomists to precisely delineate and communicate information about animal bodies and their organs, even though the meaning of some of the terms often is context-sensitive. [1] [2] Much of this information has been standardised in internationally agreed vocabularies for humans (Terminologia Anatomica) [2] and animals (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria). [1]

For humans, one type of vertebrate, and other animals that stand on two feet (bipeds), terms that are used are different from those that stand on four (quadrupeds). [1] One reason is that humans have a different neuraxis and another is that unlike animals that rest on four limbs, humans are considered when describing anatomy as being in the standard anatomical position, which is standing up with arms outstretched. [2] Thus, what is on "top" of a human is the head, whereas the "top" of a dog may be its back, and the "top" of a flounder could refer to either its left or its right side. Unique terms are used to describe animals without a backbone (invertebrates), because of their wide variety of shapes and symmetry. [3]

Standard anatomical position Edit

Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, and because appendages like limbs and tentacles can change position with respect to the main body, terms to describe position need to refer to an animal when it is in its standard anatomical position. [1] This means descriptions as if the organism is in its standard anatomical position, even when the organism in question has appendages in another position. This helps avoid confusion in terminology when referring to the same organism in different postures. [1] In humans, this refers to the body in a standing position with arms at the side and palms facing forward, with thumbs out and to the sides. [4] [1]

Combined terms Edit

Many anatomical terms can be combined, either to indicate a position in two axes simultaneously or to indicate the direction of a movement relative to the body. For example, "anterolateral" indicates a position that is both anterior and lateral to the body axis (such as the bulk of the pectoralis major muscle).

In radiology, an X-ray image may be said to be "anteroposterior", indicating that the beam of X-rays passes from their source to patient's anterior body wall through the body to exit through posterior body wall. [5] Combined terms were once generally, hyphenated, but the modern tendency is to omit the hyphen. [6]

Planes Edit

Anatomical terms describe structures with relation to four main anatomical planes: [2]

  1. The median plane, which divides the body into left and right. [2][7] This passes through the head, spinal cord, navel, and, in many animals, the tail. [7]
  2. The sagittal planes, which are parallel to the median plane. [1]
  3. The frontal plane, also called the coronal plane, which divides the body into front and back. [2]
  4. The horizontal plane, also known as the transverse plane, which is perpendicular to the other two planes. [2] In a human, this plane is parallel to the ground in a quadruped, this divides the animal into anterior and posterior sections. [3]

Axes Edit

The axes of the body are lines drawn about which an organism is roughly symmetrical. [8] To do this, distinct ends of an organism are chosen, and the axis is named according to those directions. An organism that is symmetrical on both sides has three main axes that intersect at right angles. [3] An organism that is round or not symmetrical may have different axes. [3] Example axes are:

Examples of axes in specific animals are shown below.

Anatomical axes in a human, similar for other orthograde bipedal vertebrates

Anatomical axes and directions in a fish

Spheroid or near-spheroid organs such as testes may be measured by "long" and "short" axis. [12]

Modifiers Edit

Several terms are commonly seen and used as prefixes:

  • Sub- (from Latinsub 'preposition beneath, close to, nearly etc') is used to indicate something that is beneath, or something that is subordinate to or lesser than. [13] For example, subcutaneous means beneath the skin, and "subglobular" may mean smaller than a globule
  • Hypo- (from Ancient Greekὑπό 'under') is used to indicate something that is beneath. [14] For example, the hypoglossal nerve supplies the muscles beneath the tongue.
  • Infra- (from Latininfra 'under') is used to indicate something that is within or below. [15] For example, the infraorbital nerve runs within the orbit.
  • Inter- (from Latininter 'between') is used to indicate something that is between. [16] For example, the intercostal muscles run between the ribs.
  • Super- or Supra- (from Latinsuper, supra 'above, on top of') is used to indicate something that is above something else. [17] For example, the supraorbital ridges are above the eyes.

Other terms are used as suffixes, added to the end of words:

  • -ad (from Latinad 'towards') and ab- (from Latinab) are used to indicate that something is towards (-ad) or away from (-ab) something else. [18][19] For example, "distad" means "in the distal direction", and "distad of the femur" means "beyond the femur in the distal direction". Further examples may include cephalad (towards the cephalic end), craniad, and distad. [20]

Superior and inferior Edit

Superior (from Latin super 'above') describes what is above something [21] and inferior (from Latin inferus 'below') describes what is below it. [22] For example, in the anatomical position, the most superior part of the human body is the head and the most inferior is the feet. As a second example, in humans, the neck is superior to the chest but inferior to the head.

Anterior and posterior Edit

Anterior (from Latin ante 'before') describes what is in front, [23] and posterior (from Latin post 'after') describes what is to the back of something. [24] For example, in a dog the nose is anterior to the eyes and the tail is considered the most posterior part in many fish the gill openings are posterior to the eyes but anterior to the tail.

Medial and lateral Edit

These terms describe how close something is to the midline, or the medial plane. [2] Lateral (from Latin lateralis 'to the side') describes something to the sides of an animal, as in "left lateral" and "right lateral". Medial (from Latin medius 'middle') describes structures close to the midline, [2] or closer to the midline than another structure. For example, in a human, the arms are lateral to the torso. The genitals are medial to the legs.

The terms "left" and "right" are sometimes used, or their Latin alternatives (Latin: dexter, lit. 'right' Latin: sinister, lit. 'left'). However, as left and right sides are mirror images, using these words is somewhat confusing, as structures are duplicated on both sides. For example, it is very confusing to say the dorsal fin of a dolphin is "right of" the left pectoral fin, but is "left of" the right eye, but much easier and clearer to say "the dorsal fin is medial to the pectoral fins".

Terms derived from lateral include:

  • Contralateral (from Latincontra 'against'): on the side opposite to another structure. [25] For example, the right arm and leg are controlled by the left, contralateral, side of the brain.
  • Ipsilateral (from Latinipse 'same'): on the same side as another structure. [26] For example, the left arm is ipsilateral to the left leg.
  • Bilateral (from Latinbis 'twice'): on both sides of the body. [27] For example, bilateral orchiectomy means removal of testes on both sides of the body.
  • Unilateral (from Latinunus 'one'): on one side of the body. [28] For example, a stroke can result in unilateral weakness, meaning weakness on one side of the body.

Varus (from Latin 'knock-kneed') and valgus (from Latin 'bow-legged') are terms used to describe a state in which a part further away is abnormally placed towards (varus) or away from (valgus) the midline. [29]

Proximal and distal Edit

The terms proximal (from Latin proximus 'nearest') and distal (from Latin distare 'to stand away from') are used to describe parts of a feature that are close to or distant from the main mass of the body, respectively. [30] Thus the upper arm in humans is proximal and the hand is distal.

"Proximal and distal" are frequently used when describing appendages, such as fins, tentacles, and limbs. Although the direction indicated by "proximal" and "distal" is always respectively towards or away from the point of attachment, a given structure can be either proximal or distal in relation to another point of reference. Thus the elbow is distal to a wound on the upper arm, but proximal to a wound on the lower arm. [31]

This terminology is also employed in molecular biology and therefore by extension is also used in chemistry, specifically referring to the atomic loci of molecules from the overall moiety of a given compound. [32]

Central and peripheral Edit

Central and peripheral refer to the distance towards and away from the centre of something. [33] That might be an organ, a region in the body, or an anatomical structure. For example, the Central nervous system and the peripheral nervous systems.

Central (from Latin centralis) describes something close to the centre. [33] For example, the great vessels run centrally through the body many smaller vessels branch from these.

Peripheral (from Latin peripheria, originally from Ancient Greek) describes something further away from the centre of something. [34] For example, the arm is peripheral to the body.

Superficial and deep Edit

These terms refer to the distance of a structure from the surface. [2]

Deep (from Old English) describes something further away from the surface of the organism. [35] For example, the external oblique muscle of the abdomen is deep to the skin. "Deep" is one of the few anatomical terms of location derived from Old English rather than Latin – the anglicised Latin term would have been "profound" (from Latin profundus 'due to depth'). [1] [36]

Superficial (from Latin superficies 'surface') describes something near the outer surface of the organism. [1] [37] For example, in skin, the epidermis is superficial to the subcutis.

Dorsal and ventral Edit

These two terms, used in anatomy and embryology, describe something at the back (dorsal) or front/belly (ventral) of an organism. [2]

The dorsal (from Latin dorsum 'back') surface of an organism refers to the back, or upper side, of an organism. If talking about the skull, the dorsal side is the top. [38]

The ventral (from Latin venter 'belly') surface refers to the front, or lower side, of an organism. [38]

For example, in a fish, the pectoral fins are dorsal to the anal fin, but ventral to the dorsal fin.

Cranial and caudal Edit

Specific terms exist to describe how close or far something is to the head or tail of an animal. To describe how close to the head of an animal something is, three distinct terms are used:

  • Rostral (from Latinrostrum 'beak, nose') describes something situated toward the oral or nasal region, or in the case of the brain, toward the tip of the frontal lobe. [39]
  • Cranial (from Greekκρανίον 'skull') or cephalic (from Greekκεφαλή 'head') describes how close something is to the head of an organism. [40]
  • Caudal (from Latincauda 'tail') describes how close something is to the trailing end of an organism. [41]

For example, in horses, the eyes are caudal to the nose and rostral to the back of the head.

These terms are generally preferred in veterinary medicine and not used as often in human medicine. [42] [43] [44] In humans, "cranial" and "cephalic" are used to refer to the skull, with "cranial" being used more commonly. The term "rostral" is rarely used in human anatomy, apart from embryology, and refers more to the front of the face than the superior aspect of the organism. Similarly, the term "caudal" is used more in embryology and only occasionally used in human anatomy. [2] This is because the brain is situated at the superior part of the head whereas the nose is situated in the anterior part. Thus, the "rostrocaudal axis" refers to a C shape (see image).

Anatomical landmarks Edit

The location of anatomical structures can also be described in relation to different anatomical landmarks. They are used in anatomy, surface anatomy, surgery, and radiology. [45]

Structures may be described as being at the level of a specific spinal vertebra, depending on the section of the vertebral column the structure is at. [45] The position is often abbreviated. For example, structures at the level of the fourth cervical vertebra may be abbreviated as "C4", at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra "T4", and at the level of the third lumbar vertebra "L3". Because the sacrum and coccyx are fused, they are not often used to provide the location.

References may also take origin from superficial anatomy, made to landmarks that are on the skin or visible underneath. [45] For example, structures may be described relative to the anterior superior iliac spine, the medial malleolus or the medial epicondyle.

Anatomical lines are used to describe anatomical location. For example, the mid-clavicular line is used as part of the cardiac exam in medicine to feel the apex beat of the heart.

Mouth and teeth Edit

Special terms are used to describe the mouth and teeth. [2] Fields such as osteology, palaeontology and dentistry apply special terms of location to describe the mouth and teeth. This is because although teeth may be aligned with their main axes within the jaw, some different relationships require special terminology as well for example, teeth also can be rotated, and in such contexts terms like "anterior" or "lateral" become ambiguous. [46] [47] For example, the terms "distal" and "proximal" are also redefined to mean the distance away or close to the dental arch, and "medial" and "lateral" are used to refer to the closeness to the midline of the dental arch. [48] Terms used to describe structures include "buccal" (from Latin bucca 'cheek') and "palatal" (from Latin) referring to structures close to the cheek and hard palate respectively. [48]

Hands and feet Edit

Several anatomical terms are particular to the hands and feet. [2]

Additional terms may be used to avoid confusion when describing the surfaces of the hand and what is the "anterior" or "posterior" surface – . The term "anterior", while anatomically correct, can be confusing when describe the palm of the hand Similarly is "posterior", used to describe the back of the hand and arm. This confusion can arise because the forearm can pronate and supinate and flip the location of the hand. For improved clarity, the directional term palmar (from Latin palma 'palm of the hand') is commonly used to describe the front of the hand, and dorsal is the back of the hand. For example, the top of a dog's paw is its dorsal surface the underside, either the palmar (on the forelimb) or the plantar (on the hindlimb) surface. The palmar fascia is palmar to the tendons of muscles which flex the fingers, and the dorsal venous arch is so named because it is on the dorsal side of the foot.

In humans, volar can also be used synonymously with palmar to refer to the underside of the palm, but plantar is used exclusively to describe the sole. These terms describe location as palmar and plantar For example, volar pads are those on the underside of hands or fingers the plantar surface describes the sole of the heel, foot or toes.

Similarly, in the forearm, for clarity, the sides are named after the bones. Structures closer to the radius are radial, structures closer to the ulna are ulnar, and structures relating to both bones are referred to as radioulnar. Similarly, in the lower leg, structures near the tibia (shinbone) are tibial and structures near the fibula are fibular (or peroneal).

Rotational direction Edit

Anteversion and retroversion are complementary terms describing an anatomical structure that is rotated forwards (towards the front of the body) or backwards (towards the back of the body), relative to some other position. They are particularly used to describe the curvature of the uterus. [49] [50]

  • Anteversion (from Latinanteversus) describes an anatomical structure being tilted further forward than normal, whether pathologically or incidentally. [49] For example, a woman's uterus typically is anteverted, tilted slightly forward. A misaligned pelvis may be anteverted, that is to say tilted forward to some relevant degree.
  • Retroversion (from Latinretroversus) describes an anatomical structure tilted back away from something. [50] An example is a retroverted uterus. [50]

Other directional terms Edit

Several other terms are also used to describe location. These terms are not used to form the fixed axes. Terms include:

  • Axial (from Latinaxis 'axle'): around the central axis of the organism or the extremity. Two related terms, "abaxial" and "adaxial", refer to locations away from and toward the central axis of an organism, respectively
  • Luminal (from Latinlumen 'light, opening'): on the—hollow—inside of an organ's lumen (body cavity or tubular structure) [51][52]adluminal is towards, abluminal is away from the lumen. [53] Opposite to outermost (the adventitia, serosa, or the cavity's wall). [54]
  • Parietal (from Latinparies 'wall'): pertaining to the wall of a body cavity. [55] For example, the parietal peritoneum is the lining on the inside of the abdominal cavity. Parietal can also refer specifically to the parietal bone of the skull or associated structures.
  • Terminal (from Latinterminus 'boundary or end') at the extremity of a usually projecting structure. [56] For example, ". an antenna with a terminal sensory hair".
  • Visceral and viscus (from Latinviscera 'internal organs'): associated with organs within the body's cavities. [57] For example, the stomach is covered with a lining called the visceral peritoneum as opposed to the parietal peritoneum. Viscus can also be used to mean "organ". [57] For example, the stomach is a viscus within the abdominal cavity, and visceral pain refers to pain originating from internal organs.
  • Aboral (opposite to oral) is used to denote a location along the gastrointestinal canal that is relatively closer to the anus. [58]

Different terms are used because of different body plans in animals, whether animals stand on one or two legs, and whether an animal is symmetrical or not, as discussed above. For example, as humans are approximately bilaterally symmetrical organisms, anatomical descriptions usually use the same terms as those for other vertebrates. [59] However, humans stand upright on two legs, meaning their anterior/posterior and ventral/dorsal directions are the same, and the inferior/superior directions are necessary. [60] Humans do not have a beak, so a term such as "rostral" used to refer to the beak in some animals is instead used to refer to part of the brain [61] humans do also not have a tail so a term such as "caudal" that refers to the tail end may also be used in humans and animals without tails to refer to the hind part of the body. [62]

In invertebrates, the large variety of body shapes presents a difficult problem when attempting to apply standard directional terms. Depending on the organism, some terms are taken by analogy from vertebrate anatomy, and appropriate novel terms are applied as needed. Some such borrowed terms are widely applicable in most invertebrates for example proximal, meaning "near" refers to the part of an appendage nearest to where it joins the body, and distal, meaning "standing away from" is used for the part furthest from the point of attachment. In all cases, the usage of terms is dependent on the body plan of the organism.

Golgi Apparatus Structure

The image below shows the structure of the Golgi apparatus. The cis face of the organelle is closest to the endoplasmic reticulum. The trans face is the side furthest from the nucleus, which secretes vesicles to various parts of the cell. Further, there are a number of lumens and cisternae through which products flow. These appear as a series of flattened sacs stack on each other, much like the endoplasmic reticulum.


Gravitropism or geotropism is growth in response to gravity. Gravitropism is very important in plants as it directs root growth toward the pull of gravity (positive gravitropism) and ​stem growth in the opposite direction (negative gravitropism). The orientation of a plant's root and shoot system to gravity can be observed in the stages of germination in a seedling. As the embryonic root emerges from the seed, it grows downward in the direction of gravity. Should the seed be turned in such a way that the root points upward away from the soil, the root will curve and reorient itself back toward the direction of the gravitational ​pull. Conversely, the developing shoot orients itself against gravity for upward growth.

The root cap is what orients the root tip toward the pull of gravity. Specialized cells in the root cap called statocytes are thought to be responsible for gravity sensing. Statocytes are also found in plant stems, and they contain organelles called amyloplasts. Amyloplasts function as starch storehouses. The dense starch grains cause amyloplasts to sediment in plant roots in response to gravity. Amyloplast sedimentation induces the root cap to send signals to an area of the root called the elongation zone. Cells in the elongation zone are responsible for root growth. Activity in this area leads to differential growth and curvature in the root directing growth downward toward gravity. Should a root be moved in such a manner as to change the orientation of the statocytes, amyloplasts will resettle to the lowest point of the cells. Changes in position of amyloplasts are sensed by statocytes, which then signal the elongation zone of the root to adjust the direction of curvature.

Auxins also plays a role in plant directional growth in response to gravity. The accumulation of auxins in roots slows growth. If a plant is placed horizontally on its side with no exposure to light, auxins will accumulate on the lower side of the roots resulting in slower growth on that side and downward curvature of the root. Under these same conditions, the plant stem will exhibit negative gravitropism. Gravity will cause auxins to accumulate on the lower side of the stem, which will induce the cells on that side to elongate at a faster rate than the cells on the opposite side. As a result, the shoot will bend upward.

In the anime

Major appearances

Pawniard debuted in Cilan Versus Trip, Ash Versus Georgia!, under the ownership of Georgia. She was used in Georgia's battle against Ash in the second round of the Club Battle tournament, where she went up against Snivy but was defeated. Pawniard was later revealed to have evolved into Bisharp by Search for the Clubultimate!.

A Pawniard appeared in A Festival of Decisions!, under the ownership of the ninja army. It participated in the attack on Ninja Village.

Minor appearances

A Pawniard appeared in a brief flashback in There's a New Gym Leader in Town!, under the ownership of a Youngster.

Pokédex entries

In the anime

Major appearances

In The Battling Eevee Brothers, Pyro's Flareon was targeted in one of Team Rocket's schemes.

In Trouble's Brewing and Espeon, Not Included, Koume, one of the Kimono Sisters, owns a Flareon. It was seen when Team Rocket disrupted the Kimono Sisters' tea ceremony.

In Some Like it Hot, Egan used a Flareon in his pursuit of a Magcargo. While initially unsuccessful, Egan applied Misty's strategies, allowing Flareon to defeat a giant Magcargo that Egan caught.

In A Fan with a Plan, Savannah owns a Flareon. It was used in the first round of the Rubello Town Pokémon Contest in Cruisin' for a Losin'.

Virgil's male Flareon debuted in Team Eevee and the Pokémon Rescue Squad!, along with an Eevee and her other evolutions at the time. He reappeared in a flashback in the next episode. In A Unova League Evolution!, he defeated Cameron's Lucario during the semifinals of the Vertress Conference.

In Mystery on a Deserted Island!, one of three Eevee evolved into a Flareon with a Fire Stone found on the Deserted Island.

In Eevee & Friends, a Flareon who tended to raise the temperature considerably as a defense mechanism was with an Eevee and its other evolutions, including the newly introduced Sylveon.

In Turning Heads and Training Hard!, a wild Flareon was summoned to help Ilima's Eevee perform Extreme Evoboost. In the Poké Problem segment of the next episode, it saw Ilima and Eevee off.

Minor appearances

In The Ultimate Test, Ash battled a Flareon during the Pokémon League entrance exam.

A Trainer's Flareon appeared in Bad to the Bone.

In Pikachu Re-Volts, a Flareon fell under Cassidy and Butch's control via their Drowzee at Mandarin Island North.

A Flareon appeared in the Japanese credits of Pikachu's Rescue Adventure.

In Flower Power, a Flareon was part of Florando's annual Pokémon Exhibition.

In Johto Photo Finish, Gary's demonstration featured a Flareon evolving from an Eevee.

In A Bite to Remember, Brock's demonstration featured a Vaporeon evolving from an Eevee.

In Giratina and the Sky Warrior, a Flareon was together with an Eevee and the other six Eeveelutions at the time.

A Performer's Flareon appeared in a video in Performing with Fiery Charm!.

In Tag Team Battle Inspiration!, Shauna's fantasy featured a Flareon as she imagined what Serena's Eevee could evolve into.

In Love Strikes! Eevee, Yikes!, a wild Quilladin tried to win a Flareon's affections. However, it wasn't impressed by it efforts and attacked it with Flamethrower before walking off.

A Trainer's Flareon appeared in I Choose You!.

In A Crowning Moment of Truth!, a Trainer's Flareon received the Wela Crown during the Wela Fire Festival‎.

A Flareon appeared in a fantasy in JN063.

Pokédex entries

In the anime

Main series

Major appearances


In It's Mr. Mime Time, Ash and his friends came across a Mr. Mime while looking to replace another one meant to perform in Stella's circus. It was later taken in by Ash's mother Delia after it arrived at her house and she mistook it for Ash in a costume. Since then, it has been affectionately nicknamed Mimey. In Pokémon Journeys: The Series, Mimey was left at Cerise Laboratory to look after Ash and his new friend Goh.


In It's Mr. Mime Time, Stella used a Mr. Mime in her circus. However, it was lazy and stopped obeying her because she was too hard on it. It eventually listened to her once more when it saw how much she was willing to protect it from Team Rocket.

In Stage Fight!, a Mr. Mime was part of a showboat stage show.

In The Psychic Sidekicks!, Toku's Mr. Mime was stolen by Team Rocket in the commission of one of their schemes.

In Hail to the Chef, a Mr. Mime is the sous-chef of Rhonda. She was competing with her sister Rhoda and her Sneasel for the ownership of her father's restaurant outside of Saffron City. Mr. Mime's cooking was not good, but improved under Brock's tutelage.

In Short and To the Punch!, Clayton's Mr. Mime battled Buizel twice. It won the first time but lost during the rematch due to Buizel's Ice Punch.

Minor appearances

In Three Jynx and a Baby!, Jessie's fantasy featured a Mr. Mime.

In Historical Mystery Tour!, a Clown owns a Mr. Mime. It was riding a bicycle.

A Mr. Mime appeared in A Fashionable Battle!, under the ownership of Valerie.

Three Trainers' Mr. Mime appeared in The Power of Us.

Pokédex entries

Pokémon: Twilight Wings

In Assistant, an Office Worker's Galarian Mr. Mime was carrying some papers in Macro Cosmos's office.


A Mr. Mime briefly appeared in GOTCHA!, under the ownership of Valerie.

Fix touchpad problems in Windows 10

If your touchpad isn’t working, it may be a result of a missing or out-of-date driver.

On Start , search for Device Manager, and select it from the list of results. Under Mice and other pointing devices, select your touchpad, open it, select the Driver tab, and select Update Driver. If Windows doesn't find a new driver, look for one on the device manufacturer's website and follow their instructions.

If those steps didn't work, try uninstalling your touchpad driver: open Device Manager, right-click (or press and hold) the touchpad driver, and select Uninstall. Restart your device and Windows will attempt to reinstall the driver.

If that didn't work, try using the generic driver that comes with Windows. Here's how: in Device Manager, right-click (or press and hold) your touchpad driver > Update driver software. > Browse my computer for driver software > Let me pick from a list of device drivers on my computer, select HID compliant mouse, select Next, and follow the instructions to install it.

If changing your driver doesn’t help, there may be a problem with the touchpad itself. Contact your PC’s manufacturer for help.

Sphenoid Bone Location

The location of the sphenoid bone lies behind the top of the nasal cavity and stretches from the left side of the skull to the right. Each end meets the outer surface of the skull in front of the left and right parietal bones and under the frontal bone.

The place where frontal, sphenoid, parietal, and temporal bones meet is called the pterion.

The greater wing of the sphenoid bone can be seen in the below image as the oval shape in the center of the red rectangle.

The sphenoid bone body sits behind the nasal cavity with various protrusions that play important roles in the construction of other bony structures.

A sphenoid bone fracture – trans-sphenoidal basilar skull fracture – is often life-threatening the bone lies close to the soft tissues of the pituitary gland, frontal and temporal lobes and meninges of the brain, internal carotid arteries, and facial nerves.

How should I use lidocaine topical?

Use lidocaine topical exactly as directed on the label, or as it has been prescribed by your doctor. Do not apply this medicine in larger amounts than recommended.

Improper use of lidocaine topical may result in death.

Lidocaine topical comes in many different forms (gel, spray, cream, lotion, ointment, liquid, skin patch).

Do not take by mouth. Topical medicine is for use only on the skin. If this medicine gets in your eyes, nose, mouth, rectum, or vagina, rinse with water.

Read and carefully follow any Instructions for Use provided with your medicine. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you do not understand these instructions.

Use the smallest amount of medicine needed to numb the skin or relieve pain. Your body may absorb too much of this medicine if you use too much, if you apply it over large skin areas, or if you apply heat, bandages, or plastic wrap to treated skin areas. Skin that is cut or irritated may also absorb more topical medication than healthy skin.

Do not apply this medicine to swollen skin areas or deep puncture wounds. Avoid using the medicine on skin that is raw or blistered, such as a severe burn or abrasion.

Do not cover treated skin unless your doctor has told you to.

Lidocaine topical may be applied with your finger tips or a cotton swab.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Keep both used and unused lidocaine topical skin patches out of the reach of children or pets. The amount of lidocaine in the skin patches could be harmful to a child or pet who accidentally sucks on or swallows the patch. Seek emergency medical attention if this happens.