Species Identification: large shiny black beetle, Detroit USA

Species Identification: large shiny black beetle, Detroit USA

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What sort of beetle is this? I live in a suburb of Detroit and found a whole bunch of these living under my lawn when I was replacing a section of it. I'm assuming these are also the source of the grubs I found as well. Are these harmful?

You found a stag beetle (family Lucanidae).

Although the males are much more readily recognized with their large "stag antler" shaped mandibles, these species are often sexually dimorphic with females having much smaller mandibles (e.g., see here). However, in some species the males' mandibles are likewise diminished and not stag shaped.

According to the Wikipedia page:

Currently, the only means of identification of world species is the illustrated text by Mizunuma, T. and S. Nagai. 1994. The Lucanid Beetles of the World. Mushi-sha, Tokyo. 337 pp. based on the work Catalogue illustré des lucanides du globe in Encyclopédie Entomologique (series A 27: 1-223) by Robert Didier and Eugene Seguy.

So without this guide (and without known dimensions of your specimen), an exact identification will be very difficult.

However, your species looks very similar to a male specimen of Lucanus placidus.

Additional pictures (such as the one below) can be found here.

According to Wikipedia, L placidus is 22-35 mm long, has two or more teeth on its jaws and has dark femora. The species is sometimes found in soil and it does live in Michigan:

  • We can rule out Lucanus capreolus because the color is wrong:

    [L. capreolus is] dark reddish brown in color with a smooth, shiny elytra; [their] femora are orange-brown.

It's a Lucanus. Don't know the concrete species.


Histeridae is a family of beetles commonly known as clown beetles or Hister beetles. This very diverse group of beetles contains 3,900 species found worldwide. They can be easily identified by their shortened elytra that leaves two of the seven tergites exposed, and their geniculate (elbowed) antennae with clubbed ends. These predatory feeders are most active at night and will fake death if they feel threatened. This family of beetles will occupy almost any kind of niche throughout the world. Hister beetles have proved useful during forensic investigations to help in time of death estimation. Also, certain species are used in the control of livestock pests that infest dung and to control houseflies. Because they are predacious and will even eat other Hister beetles, they must be isolated when collected.

    MacLeay, 1819Bickhardt, 1914Reitter, 1909Marseul, 1857Gyllenhal, 1808Fowler, 1912MacLeay, 1819Blanchard, 1845Bickhardt, 1914Marseul, 1857Bickhardt, 1913


Dung beetles are not a single taxonomic group dung feeding is found in a number of families of beetles, so the behaviour cannot be assumed to have evolved only once.

    (order), beetles
      (superfamily), scarabs (most families in the group do not use dung)
        (family), "earth-boring dung beetles" [6] (family), "scarab beetles" (not all species use dung)
          (subfamily), "true dung beetles" [7] (subfamily), "small dung beetles" (not all species use dung) [8]

        Dung beetles live in many habitats, including desert, grasslands and savannas, [9] farmlands, and native and planted forests. [10] They are highly influenced by the environmental context, [2] and do not prefer extremely cold or dry weather. They are found on all continents except Antarctica. They eat the dung of herbivores and omnivores, and prefer that produced by the latter. [11] Many of them also feed on mushrooms and decaying leaves and fruits. One type living in Central America, Deltochilum valgum, is a carnivore preying upon millipedes. Dung beetles do not necessarily have to eat or drink anything else, because the dung provides all the necessary nutrients. [ citation needed ]

        Most dung beetles search for dung using their sensitive sense of smell. Some smaller species simply attach themselves to the dung-providers to wait for the dung. After capturing the dung, a dung beetle rolls it, following a straight line despite all obstacles. Sometimes, dung beetles try to steal the dung ball from another beetle, so the dung beetles have to move rapidly away from a dung pile once they have rolled their ball to prevent it from being stolen. Dung beetles can roll up to 10 times their weight. Male Onthophagus taurus beetles can pull 1,141 times their own body weight: the equivalent of an average person pulling six double-decker buses full of people. [12]

        A species of dung beetle (the African Scarabaeus zambesianus) navigates by polarization patterns in moonlight, [13] the first animal known to do so. [14] [15] [16] [17] Dung beetles can also navigate when only the Milky Way or clusters of bright stars are visible, [18] making them the only insects known to orient themselves by the Milky Way. [19] [18] The eyes of dung beetles are superposition compound eyes typical of many scarabaeid beetles [20] [21] The sequence of images shows a sequence of the beetle rolling a dung ball. It does this to navigate.

        The beetle climbs onto the ball

        The beetle starts to turn around

        The beetle continues turning around

        The beetle rolls the ball with its hind legs

        An earth-boring dung beetle working

        A dung beetle with two balls of dung

        Two dung beetles fighting over a ball of dung

        Cambefort and Hanski (1991) classified dung beetles into three functional types based on their feeding and nesting strategies such as – Rollers, Tunnelers and Dwellers. The "rollers" roll and bury a dung ball either for food storage or for making a brooding ball. In the latter case, two beetles, one male and one female, stay around the dung ball during the rolling process. Usually it is the male that rolls the ball, while the female hitch-hikes or simply follows behind. In some cases, the male and the female roll together. When a spot with soft soil is found, they stop and bury the ball, then mate underground. After the mating, one or both of them prepares the brooding ball. When the ball is finished, the female lays eggs inside it, a form of mass provisioning.

        Some species do not leave after this stage, but remain to safeguard their offspring. The dung beetle goes through a complete metamorphosis. The larvae live in brood balls made with dung prepared by their parents. During the larval stage, the beetle feeds on the dung surrounding it.

        The behavior of the beetles was poorly understood until the studies of Jean Henri Fabre in the late 19th century. For example, Fabre corrected the myth that a dung beetle would seek aid from other dung beetles when confronted by obstacles. By observation and experiment, he found the seeming helpers were in fact awaiting an opportunity to steal the roller's food source. [22]

        They are widely used in ecological research as a good bioindicator group to examine the impacts of climate disturbances, such as extreme droughts [23] and associated fires, [24] and human activities on tropical biodiversity [25] [26] and ecosystem functioning, [27] such as seed dispersal, soil bioturbation and nutrient cycling. [28]

        Dung beetles play a role in agriculture and tropical forests. By burying and consuming dung, they improve nutrient recycling and soil structure. [29] [30] Dung beetles have been further shown to improve soil conditions and plant growth on rehabilitated coal mines in South Africa. [31] They are also important for the dispersal of seeds present in animals' dung, [32] influencing seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests. [33] They can protect livestock, such as cattle, by removing the dung which, if left, could provide habitat for pests such as flies. Therefore, many countries have introduced the creatures for the benefit of animal husbandry. The American Institute of Biological Sciences reports that dung beetles save the United States cattle industry an estimated US$380 million annually through burying above-ground livestock feces. [34]

        In Australia, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) commissioned the Australian Dung Beetle Project (1965–1985) which, led by George Bornemissza, sought to introduce species of dung beetles from South Africa and Europe. The successful introduction of 23 species was made, most notably Digitonthophagus gazella and Euoniticellus intermedius, which has resulted in improvement of the quality and fertility of Australian cattle pastures, along with a reduction in the population of pestilent Australian bush flies by around 90%. [35] [36]

        An application has been made by Landcare Research to import up to 11 species of dung beetle into New Zealand. [37] As well as improving pasture soils the Dung Beetle Release Strategy Group say that it would result in a reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (a greenhouse gas) from agriculture. [38] There is, however, strong opposition from some at the University of Auckland, and a few others, based on the risks of the dung beetles acting as vectors of disease. [39] [40] There are public health researchers at the University of Auckland who agree with the current EPA risk assessment [41] and indeed there are several Landcare programmes in Australia that involve schoolchildren collecting dung beetles. [42]

        The African dung beetle (D. gazella) was introduced in several locations in North and South America and has been spreading its distribution to other regions by natural dispersal and accidental transportation, and is now probably naturalized in most countries between México and Argentina. The exotic species might be useful for controlling diseases of livestock in commercial areas, and might displace native species in modified landscapes however, data is not conclusive about its effect on native species in natural environments and further monitoring is required. [43]

        Like many other insects, (dried) dung beetle, called qiāngláng (蜣蜋) in Chinese, is used in Chinese herbal medicine. It is recorded in the "Insect section" (蟲部) of the Compendium of Materia Medica, where it is recommended for the cure of 10 diseases. [ citation needed ]

        In Isan, Northeastern Thailand, the local people famously eat many different kinds of insects, including the dung beetle. There is an Isan song กุดจี่หายไปใหน "Where Did the Dung Beetle Go", which relates the replacement of water buffalo with the "metal" buffalo, which does not provide the dung needed for the dung beetle and has led to the increasing rarity of the dung beetle in the agricultural region. [ citation needed ]

        The Mediterranean dung beetle (Bubas bison) has been used in conjunction with biochar stock fodder to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, which are both greenhouse gases. The beetles work the biochar-enriched dung into the soil without the use of machines. [44]

        Several species of the dung beetle, most notably the species Scarabaeus sacer (often referred to as the sacred scarab), enjoyed a sacred status among the ancient Egyptians.

        Egyptian hieroglyphic script uses the image of the beetle to represent a triliteral phonetic that Egyptologists transliterate as xpr or ḫpr and translate as "to come into being", "to become" or "to transform". The derivative term xprw or ḫpr(w) is variously translated as "form", "transformation", "happening", "mode of being" or "what has come into being", depending on the context. It may have existential, fictional, or ontologic significance. The scarab was linked to Khepri ("he who has come into being"), the god of the rising sun. The ancients believed that the dung beetle was only male-sexed, and reproduced by depositing semen into a dung ball. The supposed self-creation of the beetle resembles that of Khepri, who creates himself out of nothing. Moreover, the dung ball rolled by a dung beetle resembles the sun. Plutarch wrote:

        The race of beetles has no female, but all the males eject their sperm into a round pellet of material which they roll up by pushing it from the opposite side, just as the sun seems to turn the heavens in the direction opposite to its own course, which is from west to east. [45]

        The ancient Egyptians believed that Khepri renewed the sun every day before rolling it above the horizon, then carried it through the other world after sunset, only to renew it, again, the next day. Some New Kingdom royal tombs exhibit a threefold image of the sun god, with the beetle as symbol of the morning sun. The astronomical ceiling in the tomb of Ramses VI portrays the nightly "death" and "rebirth" of the sun as being swallowed by Nut, goddess of the sky, and re-emerging from her womb as Khepri.

        The image of the scarab, conveying ideas of transformation, renewal, and resurrection, is ubiquitous in ancient Egyptian religious and funerary art.

        Excavations of ancient Egyptian sites have yielded images of the scarab in bone, ivory, stone, Egyptian faience, and precious metals, dating from the Sixth Dynasty and up to the period of Roman rule. They are generally small, bored to allow stringing on a necklace, and the base bears a brief inscription or cartouche. Some have been used as seals. Pharaohs sometimes commissioned the manufacture of larger images with lengthy inscriptions, such as the commemorative scarab of Queen Tiye. Massive sculptures of scarabs can be seen at Luxor Temple, at the Serapeum in Alexandria (see Serapis) and elsewhere in Egypt.

        The scarab was of prime significance in the funerary cult of ancient Egypt. Scarabs, generally, though not always, were cut from green stone, and placed on the chest of the deceased. Perhaps the most famous example of such "heart scarabs" is the yellow-green pectoral scarab found among the entombed provisions of Tutankhamen. It was carved from a large piece of Libyan desert glass. The purpose of the "heart scarab" was to ensure that the heart would not bear witness against the deceased at judgement in the Afterlife. Other possibilities are suggested by the "transformation spells" of the Coffin Texts, which affirm that the soul of the deceased may transform (xpr) into a human being, a god, or a bird and reappear in the world of the living.

        One scholar comments on other traits of the scarab connected with the theme of death and rebirth:

        It may not have gone unnoticed that the pupa, whose wings and legs are encased at this stage of development, is very mummy-like. It has even been pointed out that the egg-bearing ball of dung is created in an underground chamber which is reached by a vertical shaft and horizontal passage curiously reminiscent of Old Kingdom mastaba tombs." [46]

        In contrast to funerary contexts, some of ancient Egypt's neighbors adopted the scarab motif for seals of varying types. The best-known of these being Judean LMLK seals (8 of 21 designs contained scarab beetles), which were used exclusively to stamp impressions on storage jars during the reign of Hezekiah.

        The scarab remains an item of popular interest thanks to modern fascination with the art and beliefs of ancient Egypt. Scarab beads in semiprecious stones or glazed ceramics can be purchased at most bead shops, while at Luxor Temple a massive ancient scarab has been roped off to discourage visitors from rubbing the base of the statue "for luck".

        Some dung beetles are used as food in South East Asia and a variety of dung beetle species have been used therapeutically (and are still being used in traditionally living societies) in potions and folk medicines to treat a number of illnesses and disorders. [47]

        In literature Edit

        In Aesop's fable "The Eagle and the Beetle", the eagle kills a hare that has asked for sanctuary with a beetle. The beetle then takes revenge by twice destroying the eagle's eggs. The eagle, in despair, flies up to Olympus and places her latest eggs in Zeus's lap, beseeching the god to protect them. When the beetle finds out what the eagle has done, it stuffs itself with dung, goes straight up to Zeus and flies right into his face. Zeus is startled at the sight of the unpleasant creature, jumping to his feet so that the eggs are broken. Learning of the origin of their feud, Zeus attempts to mediate and, when his efforts to mediate fail, he changes the breeding season of the eagle to a time when the beetles are not above ground.

        Aristophanes alluded to Aesop's fable several times in his plays. In Peace, the hero rides up to Olympus to free the goddess Peace from her prison. His steed is an enormous dung beetle which has been fed so much dung that it has grown to monstrous size.

        Hans Christian Andersen's "The Dung Beetle" tells the story of a dung beetle who lives in the stable of the king's horses in an imaginary kingdom. When he demands golden shoes like those the king's horse wears and is refused, he flies away and has a series of adventures, which are often precipitated by his feeling of superiority to other animals. He finally returns to the stable having decided (against all logic) that it is for him that the king's horse wears golden shoes. [48]

        In Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis, the transformed character of Gregor Samsa is called an "old dung beetle" (alter Mistkäfer) by a charwoman.

        The French entomologist Pierre André Latreille described the genus in 1802. He derived the name from the Ancient Greek xylokopos/ξυλοκὀπος "wood-cutter". [2]

        Many species in this enormous genus are difficult to tell apart most species are all black, or primarily black with some yellow or white pubescence. Some differ only in subtle morphological features, such as details of the male genitalia. Males of some species differ confusingly from the females, being covered in greenish-yellow fur. The confusion of species arises particularly in the common names in India, for example, the common name for any all-black species of Xylocopa is bhanvra (or bhomora - ভোমোৰা - in Assamese), and reports and sightings of bhanvra or bhomora are commonly misattributed to a European species, Xylocopa violacea however, this species is found only in the northern regions of Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab, and most reports of bhanvra, especially elsewhere in India, refer to any of roughly 15 other common black Xylocopa species in the region, such as X. nasalis, X. tenuiscapa, or X. tranquebarorum. [3]

        Non-professionals commonly confuse carpenter bees with bumblebees [4] the simplest rule of thumb for telling them apart is that most carpenter bees have a shiny abdomen, whereas bumblebee abdomens are completely covered with dense hair. Males of some species of carpenter bees have a white or yellow face, unlike bumblebees, while females lack the bare corbicula of bumblebees the hind leg is entirely hairy.

        The wing venation is characteristic the marginal cell in the front wing is narrow and elongated, and its apex bends away from the costa. The front wing has small stigma. When closed, the bee's short mandibles conceal the labrum. The clypeus is flat. [4] Males of many species have much larger eyes than the females, which relates to their mating behavior.

        In the United States, two eastern species, Xylocopa virginica and X. micans, occur. Three more species are primarily western in distribution, X. sonorina, X. tabaniformis orpifex, and X. californica. X. virginica is by far the more widely distributed species. [5]

        In several species, the females live alongside their own daughters or sisters, creating a small social group. They use wood bits to form partitions between the cells in the nest. A few species bore holes in wood dwellings. Since the tunnels are near the surface, structural damage is generally minor or superficial. [6] However, carpenter bee nests are attractive to woodpeckers, which may do further damage by drilling into the wood to feed on the bees or larvae. [7]

        Carpenter bees have short mouthparts and are important pollinators on some open-faced or shallow flowers for some they even are obligate pollinators, for example the maypop (Passiflora incarnata) and Orphium, which are not pollinated by any other insects. They also are important pollinators of flowers with various forms of lids, such as Salvia species and some members of the Fabaceae. However many carpenter bees "rob" nectar by slitting the sides of flowers with deep corollae. Xylocopa virginica is one example of a species with such nectar robbing behavior. With their short labia the bees cannot reach the nectar without piercing the long-tubed flowers they miss contact with the anthers and perform no pollination. In some plants, this reduces fruit and seed production, while others have developed defence mechanisms against nectar robbing. When foraging for pollen from some species with tubular flowers however, the same species of carpenter bees still achieve pollination, if the anthers and stigmata are exposed together. [8]

        Many Old World carpenter bees have a special pouch-like structure on the inside of their first metasomal tergite called the acarinarium where certain mites (Dinogamasus species) reside as commensals. The exact nature of the relationship is not fully understood, though in other bees that carry mites, they are beneficial, feeding either on fungi in the nest, or on other harmful mites.

        Carpenter bees are traditionally considered solitary bees, though some species have simple social nests in which mothers and daughters may cohabit. Examples of this type of social nesting can be seen in the species Xylocopa sulcatipes [10] and Xylocopa nasalis [11] . When females cohabit, a division of labor between them occurs sometimes. In this type of nesting, multiple females either share in the foraging and nest laying, or one female does all the foraging and nest laying, while the other females guard. [10]

        Solitary species differ from social species. Solitary bees tend to be gregarious and often several nests of solitary bees are near each other. In solitary nesting, the founding bee forages, builds cells, lays the eggs, and guards. Normally, only one generation of bees live in the nest. [10] Xylocopa pubescens is one carpenter bee species that can have both social and solitary nests. [12]

        Carpenter bees make nests by tunneling into wood, bamboo, and similar hard plant material such as peduncles, usually dead. They vibrate their bodies as they rasp their mandibles against hard wood, each nest having a single entrance which may have many adjacent tunnels. As a subfamily, they nest in a wide range of host plants, but any one species may show definite adaptations or preferences for particular groups of plants. The entrance is often a perfectly circular hole measuring about 16 mm (0.63 in) on the underside of a beam, bench, or tree limb. Carpenter bees do not eat wood. They discard the bits of wood, or reuse particles to build partitions between cells. The tunnel functions as a nursery for brood and storage for the pollen/nectar upon which the brood subsists. The provision masses of some species are among the most complex in shape of any group of bees whereas most bees fill their brood cells with a soupy mass and others form simple spheroidal pollen masses, Xylocopa species form elongated and carefully sculpted masses that have several projections which keep the bulk of the mass from coming into contact with the cell walls, sometimes resembling an irregular caltrop. The eggs are very large relative to the size of the female, and are some of the largest eggs among all insects. [13] Carpenter bees can be timber pests, and cause substantial damage to wood if infestations go undetected for several years. [14]

        Two very different mating systems appear to be common in carpenter bees, and often this can be determined simply by examining specimens of the males of any given species. Species in which the males have large eyes are characterized by a mating system where the males either search for females by patrolling, or by hovering and waiting for passing females, which they then pursue. In the other mating system, the males often have very small heads, but a large, hypertrophied glandular reservoir in the mesosoma releases pheromones into the airstream behind the male while it flies or hovers. The pheromone advertises the presence of the male to females. [15]

        Male bees often are seen hovering near nests, and will approach nearby animals. However, males are harmless, since they do not have a stinger. [16] Female carpenter bees are capable of stinging, but they are docile and rarely sting unless caught in the hand or otherwise directly provoked. [5]

        Woodpeckers eat carpenter bees, as do various species of birds, such as shrikes and bee-eaters as well as some mammals such as ratels. Other predators include large mantises and predatory flies, particularly large robber-flies of the family Asilidae. Woodpeckers are attracted to the noise of the bee larvae and drill holes along the tunnels to feed on them. [17]

        Apart from outright predators, parasitoidal species of bee flies (e.g. Xenox) lay eggs in the entrance to the bee’s nest and the fly maggots live off the bee larvae.

        • Xylocopa abbotti(Cockerell, 1909)
        • Xylocopa abbreviataHurd & Moure, 1963
        • Xylocopa acutipennisSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa adumbrataLieftinck, 1957
        • Xylocopa adustaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa aeneipennis(DeGeer, 1773)
        • Xylocopa aerata(Smith, 1851)
        • Xylocopa aestuans(Linnaeus, 1758)
        • Xylocopa aethiopicaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa africana(Fabricius, 1781)
        • Xylocopa albicepsFabricius, 1804
        • Xylocopa albifronsLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa albinotumMatsumura, 1926
        • Xylocopa alternataPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa alticola(Cockerell, 1919)
        • Xylocopa amamensisSonan, 1934
        • Xylocopa amauropteraPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa amazonicaEnderlein, 1913
        • Xylocopa amedaeiLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa amethystina(Fabricius, 1793)
        • Xylocopa andarabanaHedicke, 1938
        • Xylocopa andicaEnderlein, 1913
        • Xylocopa angulosaMaa, 1954
        • Xylocopa anthophoroidesSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa apicalisSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa appendiculataSmith, 1852
        • Xylocopa artifexSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa aruanaRitsema, 1876
        • Xylocopa assimilisRitsema, 1880
        • Xylocopa augustiLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa auripennisLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa auroreaFriese, 1922
        • Xylocopa aurulenta(Fabricius, 1804)
        • Xylocopa bakeriana(Cockerell, 1914)
        • Xylocopa balteataMaa, 1943
        • Xylocopa bambusaeSchrottky, 1902
        • Xylocopa bangkaensisFriese, 1903
        • Xylocopa barbatellaCockerell, 1931
        • Xylocopa bariwalMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa basalisSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa bentoniCockerell, 1919
        • Xylocopa bequaerti(Cockerell, 1930)
        • Xylocopa bhowaraMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa biangulataVachal, 1899
        • Xylocopa bicarinataAlfken, 1932
        • Xylocopa bicristataMaa, 1954
        • Xylocopa bilineataFriese, 1914
        • Xylocopa bimaculataFriese, 1903
        • Xylocopa binongkonavan der Vecht, 1953
        • Xylocopa bluethgeniDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa bombiformisSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa bomboidesSmith, 1879
        • Xylocopa bombylans(Fabricius, 1775)
        • Xylocopa boopsMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa bouyssouiVachal, 1898
        • Xylocopa brasilianorum(Linnaeus, 1767)
        • Xylocopa braunsiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa bruesiCockerell, 1914
        • Xylocopa bryorum(Fabricius, 1775)
        • Xylocopa buginesicaVecht, 1953
        • Xylocopa buruanaLieftinck, 1956
        • Xylocopa caerulea(Fabricius, 1804)
        • Xylocopa caffra(Linnaeus, 1767)
        • Xylocopa calcarata(LeVeque, 1928)
        • Xylocopa calensLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa californicaCresson, 1864
        • Xylocopa calopteraPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa canaria(Cockerell & LeVeque, 1925)
        • Xylocopa cantabritaLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa capensisSpinola, 1838
        • Xylocopa capitataSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa carbonariaSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa caribeaLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa casparivan der Vecht, 1953
        • Xylocopa caviventrisMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa cearensisDucke, 1911
        • Xylocopa ceballosiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa celebensis(Gribodo, 1894)
        • Xylocopa chapini(LeVeque, 1928)
        • Xylocopa chinensisFriese, 1911
        • Xylocopa chiyakensis(Cockerell, 1908)
        • Xylocopa chlorina(Cockerell, 1915)
        • Xylocopa chrysopodaSchrottky, 1902
        • Xylocopa chrysopteraLatreille, 1809
        • Xylocopa ciliataBurmeister, 1876
        • Xylocopa citrinaFriese, 1909
        • Xylocopa clarionensisHurd, 1958
        • Xylocopa claripennisFriese, 1922
        • Xylocopa clotiVachal, 1898
        • Xylocopa cockerelliMaa, 1943
        • Xylocopa codinaiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa colonaLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa columbiensisPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa combinataRitsema, 1876
        • Xylocopa combustaSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa concolorataMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa conradsianaFriese, 1911
        • Xylocopa coracinavan der Vecht, 1953
        • Xylocopa cornigeraFriese, 1909
        • Xylocopa coronataSmith, 1861
        • Xylocopa cribrataPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa cubaecolaLucas, 1857
        • Xylocopa cuernosensis(Cockerell, 1915)
        • Xylocopa cyaneaSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa cyanescensBrullé, 1832
        • Xylocopa dalbertisiLieftinck, 1957
        • Xylocopa dapitanensis(Cockerell, 1915)
        • Xylocopa darwiniCockerell, 1926
        • Xylocopa dejeaniiLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa dibongoanaHedicke, 1923
        • Xylocopa dimidiataLatreille, 1809
        • Xylocopa disconotaFriese, 1914
        • Xylocopa distinguendaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa ditypaVachal, 1898
        • Xylocopa diversipesSmith, 1861
        • Xylocopa dolosaVachal, 1899
        • Xylocopa dormeyeri(Enderlein, 1909)
        • Xylocopa dualaStrand, 1921
        • Xylocopa electaSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa elegansHurd & Moure, 1963
        • Xylocopa erlangeriEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa erythrinaGribodo, 1894
        • Xylocopa escaleraiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa esicaCameron, 1902
        • Xylocopa euchloraPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa euxanthaCockerell, 1933
        • Xylocopa eximiaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa fabricianaMoure, 1960
        • Xylocopa fallaxMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa fenestrata(Fabricius, 1798)
        • Xylocopa fervensLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa fimbriataFabricius, 1804
        • Xylocopa flavicollis(DeGeer, 1778)
        • Xylocopa flavifronsMatsumura, 1912
        • Xylocopa flavonigrescensSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa flavorufa(DeGeer, 1778)
        • Xylocopa forbesiiW. F. Kirby, 1883
        • Xylocopa forsiusiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa fortissimaCockerell, 1930
        • Xylocopa franssenivan der Vecht, 1953
        • Xylocopa friesianaMaa, 1939
        • Xylocopa frontalis(Olivier, 1789)
        • Xylocopa fuliginataPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa fulvaFriese, 1922
        • Xylocopa funestaMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa fuscataSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa gabonica(Gribodo, 1894)
        • Xylocopa ganglbaueriMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa gaulleiVachal, 1898
        • Xylocopa ghilianiiGribodo, 1891
        • Xylocopa gracilisDusmet y Alonso, 1923
        • Xylocopa graueriMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa gressittiLieftinck, 1957
        • Xylocopa gribodoiMagretti, 1892
        • Xylocopa grisescensLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa grossa(Drury, 1770)
        • Xylocopa grubaueriFriese, 1903
        • Xylocopa gualanensisCockerell, 1912
        • Xylocopa guatemalensisCockerell, 1912
        • Xylocopa guigliaeLieftinck, 1957
        • Xylocopa haefligeriFriese, 1909
        • Xylocopa haematospilaMoure, 1951
        • Xylocopa hafiziiMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa hellenicaSpinola, 1843
        • Xylocopa hirsutissimaMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa hottentottaSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa hyalinipennisFriese, 1922
        • Xylocopa ignescens(LeVeque, 1928)
        • Xylocopa imitatorSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa incandescens(Cockerell, 1932)
        • Xylocopa incertaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa incompletaRitsema, 1880
        • Xylocopa inconspicuaMaa, 1937
        • Xylocopa inconstansSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa inquirendaVachal, 1899
        • Xylocopa insolaVachal, 1910
        • Xylocopa insularisSmith, 1857
        • Xylocopa ioVachal, 1898
        • Xylocopa iranicaMaa, 1954
        • Xylocopa iridipennisLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa iris(Christ, 1791)
        • Xylocopa isabelleaeHurd, 1959
        • Xylocopa javanaFriese, 1914
        • Xylocopa kamerunensisVachal, 1899
        • Xylocopa karnyiMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa kerri(Cockerell, 1929)
        • Xylocopa kuehniFriese, 1903
        • Xylocopa lachneaMoure, 1951
        • Xylocopa lanataSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa langi(LeVeque, 1928)
        • Xylocopa lateralisSay, 1837
        • Xylocopa lateritiaSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa laticeps
        • Xylocopa latipes(Drury, 1773)
        • Xylocopa lautipennis(Cockerell, 1933)
        • Xylocopa lehmanniFriese, 1903
        • Xylocopa lepeletieriEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa leucocephalaRitsema, 1876
        • Xylocopa leucothoracoidesMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa levequeaeMaa, 1943
        • Xylocopa lieftinckiLeys, 2000
        • Xylocopa lombokensisMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa longespinosaEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa longulaFriese, 1922
        • Xylocopa loripesSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa lucbanensis(Cockerell, 1927)
        • Xylocopa lucidaSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa lugubrisGerstäcker, 1857
        • Xylocopa lundqvistiLieftinck, 1957
        • Xylocopa luteolaLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa macropsLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa madidaFriese, 1925
        • Xylocopa madurensisFriese, 1913
        • Xylocopa maesoiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa magnifica(Cockerell, 1929)
        • Xylocopa maidliMaa, 1940
        • Xylocopa maiorMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa marginellaLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa mastrucataPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa mazarredoiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa mcgregoriCockerell, 1920
        • Xylocopa mckeani(Cockerell, 1929)
        • Xylocopa meadewaldoiHurd, 1959
        • Xylocopa mendozanaEnderlein, 1913
        • Xylocopa mercetiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa metallicaSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa mexicanorumCockerell, 1912
        • Xylocopa meyeriDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa micansLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa micheneriHurd, 1978
        • Xylocopa mimeticaCockerell, 1915
        • Xylocopa minorMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa mirabilisHurd & Moure, 1963
        • Xylocopa mixtaRadoszkowski, 1881
        • Xylocopa modestaSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa mohnikeiCockerell, 1907
        • Xylocopa mongolicus(Wu, 1983)
        • Xylocopa montanaEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa mordaxSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa morotaianaLieftinck, 1956
        • Xylocopa muscaria(Fabricius, 1775)
        • Xylocopa myopsRitsema, 1876
        • Xylocopa nasalisWestwood, 1842
        • Xylocopa nasicaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa nautlanaCockerell, 1904
        • Xylocopa negligendaMaa, 1939
        • Xylocopa nigrellaHurd, 1959
        • Xylocopa nigrescensFriese, 1901
        • Xylocopa nigricansVachal, 1910
        • Xylocopa nigricaula(LeVeque, 1928)
        • Xylocopa nigripesFriese, 1915
        • Xylocopa nigrita(Fabricius, 1775)
        • Xylocopa nigrocaeruleaSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa nigrocaudataPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa nigrocinctaSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa nigroclypeataRayment, 1935
        • Xylocopa nigroplagiataRitsema, 1876
        • Xylocopa nigrotarsataMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa nitidiventrisSmith, 1878
        • Xylocopa nix(Maa, 1954)
        • Xylocopa nobilisSmith, 1859
        • Xylocopa nogueiraiHurd & Moure, 1960
        • Xylocopa nyassicaEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa oblongaSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa obscurataSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa obscuritarsisFriese, 1922
        • Xylocopa occipitalisPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa ocellarisPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa ocularisPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa ogasawarensisMatsumura, 1932
        • Xylocopa olivacea(Fabricius, 1778)
        • Xylocopa olivieriLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa ordinariaSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa ornataSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa orthogonaspisMoure, 2003
        • Xylocopa orthosiphonis(Cockerell, 1908)
        • Xylocopa pallidiscopaHurd, 1961
        • Xylocopa parvicepsMorawitz, 1895
        • Xylocopa parvulaRayment, 1935
        • Xylocopa perforatorSmith, 1861
        • Xylocopa perkinsiCameron, 1901
        • Xylocopa perpunctata(LeVeque, 1928)
        • Xylocopa peruanaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa perversaWiedemann, 1824
        • Xylocopa pervirescensCockerell, 1931
        • Xylocopa phalothoraxLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa philippinensisSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa pilosaFriese, 1922
        • Xylocopa plagioxanthaLieftinck, 1964
        • Xylocopa praeustaSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa prashadiMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa preussiEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa providaSmith, 1863
        • Xylocopa proximataMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa przewalskyiMorawitz, 1886
        • Xylocopa pseudoleucothoraxMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa pseudoviolaceaPopov, 1947
        • Xylocopa pubescensSpinola, 1838
        • Xylocopa pulchraSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa punctifronsCockerell, 1917
        • Xylocopa punctigenaMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa punctilabrisMorawitz, 1894
        • Xylocopa pusulataVachal, 1910
        • Xylocopa ramakrishnaiMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa rejectaVachal, 1910
        • Xylocopa remotaMaa, 1938
        • Xylocopa rogenhoferiFriese, 1900
        • Xylocopa rotundicepsSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa rufaFriese, 1901
        • Xylocopa ruficepsFriese, 1910
        • Xylocopa ruficollisHurd & Moure, 1963
        • Xylocopa ruficornisFabricius, 1804
        • Xylocopa rufidorsumEnderlein, 1913
        • Xylocopa rufipesSmith, 1852
        • Xylocopa rufitarsisLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa rutilansLieftinck, 1957
        • Xylocopa samarensis(Cockerell & LeVeque, 1925)
        • Xylocopa sarawaticaEngel, 2017[18]
        • Xylocopa schoanaEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa scioensisGribodo, 1884
        • Xylocopa senexFriese, 1909
        • Xylocopa seniorVachal, 1899
        • Xylocopa shelfordiCameron, 1902
        • Xylocopa sicheliVachal, 1898
        • Xylocopa signataMorawitz, 1875
        • Xylocopa similisSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa simillimaSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa sinensis(Wu, 1983)
        • Xylocopa sinensisSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa smithiiRitsema, 1876
        • Xylocopa sogdianaPopov & Ponomareva, 1961
        • Xylocopa somalicaMagretti, 1895
        • Xylocopa sonorinaSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa sphinxVachal, 1899
        • Xylocopa splendidulaLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa stadelmanniVachal, 1899
        • Xylocopa stanleyi(LeVeque, 1928)
        • Xylocopa steindachneriMaidl, 1912
        • Xylocopa strandiDusmet y Alonso, 1924
        • Xylocopa subcombusta(LeVeque, 1928)
        • Xylocopa subcyaneaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa subjunctaVachal, 1898
        • Xylocopa subvirescensCresson, 1879
        • Xylocopa subvolatilis(Cockerell, 1918)
        • Xylocopa subzonataMoure, 1949
        • Xylocopa sulcatipesMaa, 1970
        • Xylocopa sulcifronsPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa suspectaMoure & Camargo, 1988
        • Xylocopa suspiciosaVachal, 1899
        • Xylocopa sycophantaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa tabaniformisSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa tacanensisMoure, 1949
        • Xylocopa tambelanensis(Cockerell, 1926)
        • Xylocopa tanganyikaeStrand, 1911
        • Xylocopa tayabanicaCockerell, 1930
        • Xylocopa tegulataFriese, 1911
        • Xylocopa tenkeanaCockerell, 1933
        • Xylocopa tenuataSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa tenuiscapaWestwood, 1840
        • Xylocopa teredoGuilding, 1825
        • Xylocopa tesselataMaa, 1970
        • Xylocopa thoracicaFriese, 1903
        • Xylocopa togoensisEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa torrida(Westwood, 1838)
        • Xylocopa tranquebarica(Fabricius, 1804)
        • Xylocopa tranquebarorum(Swederus, 1787)
        • Xylocopa transitoriaPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa tricolorRitsema, 1876
        • Xylocopa trifasciataGribodo, 1891
        • Xylocopa trochantericaVachal, 1910
        • Xylocopa truxaliHurd & Moure, 1963
        • Xylocopa tumidaFriese, 1903
        • Xylocopa tumoriferaLieftinck, 1957
        • Xylocopa turanicaMorawitz, 1875
        • Xylocopa uclesiensisPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa unicolorSmith, 1861
        • Xylocopa ustulataSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa vachaliPérez, 1901
        • Xylocopa valgaGerstäcker, 1872
        • Xylocopa varentzowiMorawitz, 1895
        • Xylocopa variansSmith, 1874
        • Xylocopa varipesSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa velutinaLieftinck, 1957
        • Xylocopa versicolorAlfken, 1930
        • Xylocopa vestitaHurd & Moure, 1963
        • Xylocopa villosaFriese, 1909
        • Xylocopa violacea(Linnaeus, 1758)
        • Xylocopa virginica(Linnaeus, 1771)
        • Xylocopa viridigastraLepeletier, 1841
        • Xylocopa viridisSmith, 1854
        • Xylocopa vittataEnderlein, 1903
        • Xylocopa vogtianaEnderlein, 1913
        • Xylocopa volatilisSmith, 1861
        • Xylocopa vulpinaAlfken, 1930
        • Xylocopa waterhouseiLeys, 2000
        • Xylocopa watmoughiEardley, 1983
        • Xylocopa wellmaniCockerell, 1906
        • Xylocopa wilmattaeCockerell, 1912
        • Xylocopa xantiMocsáry, 1883
        • Xylocopa yunnanensisWu, 1982
        • Xylocopa zonataAlfken, 1930

        Carpenter bees have large compound eyes. Their mandibles, when closed, cover the labrum.

        Metallic wood-boring beetles: identification of Florida Chalcophora (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

        Metallic wood-borers are so called because adults of many species have a metallic luster, giving them a shiny appearance while at rest. The name wood-borer refers to the larval stage. Larvae bore under bark or deeper into heartwood of a variety of tree species. The term "flat-headed wood-borers" is also used with these beetles, and refers to the dorsally flattened appearance of the larvae. Adults are quite active and quick to take flight when disturbed. Activity generally occurs during the hottest part of the day, and individuals may be seen sunning on logs or stumps. Many species also occur on plants, and may be collected by beating foliage. Members of the genus Chalcophora are the largest buprestids in Florida. These species (20-30mm) of metallic woodborers are frequently encountered by collectors in Florida. Individuals may be seen resting on sidewalks, on walls, and may actually land on people, especially if they walk around in bright clothing. This may be quite disconcerting to those that are intimidated by large insects. Florida species are attracted to turpentine-baited traps.

        Members of Buprestidae utilize a variety of host plants as food and as larval habitat. Chalcophora, both georgiana and virginiensis are reported as general pests of a variety of species of Pine. Blatchley (1910) stated that C. liberta frequented scrub pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) in the dune region of Lake, Porter, and Laporte counties, Indiana. Adults fed on young buds and leaves of the pine while larvae lived as borers in the decaying wood. Females oviposit in cracks and crevices in the bark or in wounds. Larvae develop under bark, then bore deeper into heartwood where they pupate in a single cell. Adults emerge from the host tree leaving a characteristically shaped elliptical exit hole.

        The genus Chalcophora Dejean 1833 contains 5 species (Bellamy 2004, pers. comm.) Chalcophora fortis LeConte, C. angulicollis (LeConte), C. georgiana (LeConte), C. liberta (Germar), and C. virginiensis (Drury). The first 2 are northern and/or western species that do not occur in Florida. The remaining 3 species have been recorded from Florida. There is some question concerning the occurrence of C. liberta in Florida. Literature records exist for this species but no recent verifiable specimens have been seen. An online checklist of the Chalcophorina of North America (north of Mexico)(C. L. Bellamy, 2004) [] lists C. liberta and C. virginiensis in Florida, with C. georgiana known from Georgia and Mississippi. Bellamy (per. comm.), now lists georgiana from Florida, and commented that the records for liberta, are based solely on literature records. As far as I have been able to ascertain C. liberta has not been collected in Florida. Instead C. georgiana seems to be the species that occurs with regularity with virginiensis. Peck and Thomas (1998) list georgiana and virginiensis from Florida. For the moment, due to the lack of verifiable specimens of liberta from Florida, we will consider that only 2 species of Chalcophora occur in Florida. However, for completeness and for the possibility that there may be occasional specimens of liberta found in southeastern states, we have included this species in the diagnostic key.

        • Chalcophora georgiana (LeConte): Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina
        • Chalcophora virginiensis (Drury): Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia
        • Chalcophora liberta (Germar): Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas.

        At a quick glance one may identify georgiana and virginiensis based on size (larger species is virginiensis) and color (virginiensis black, georgiana coppery). However, there may be overlap in size, and color is also variable. Therefore, the following diagnostic key and pictures are presented as an aid in identification of the Florida Chalcophora species. Images were taken using AutoMontage imaging in the Entomology Department at the University of Florida.

          1. Elytral sutural stria effaced in anterior half (Fig. 1b) Apical margin of elytra distinctly serrated (Fig. 3b) head with anteriorly expanded deep median furrow (Fig. 2b) overall color usually black, with a faint copper reflection. virginiensis (Drury)

        - Elytral sutural stria complete, extending forward as far as scutellum or to base (Fig. 1a) Apical margin of elytra feebly or not at all serrated (Fig. 3a, 4c) median furrow of head shallower and not anteriorly expanded (Fig. 2a) overall color coppery green or yellow. 2. (georgiana and liberta)

        2. Elevated elytral costae similar in color to depressed areas (Fig. 1a.) Apical margin of elytra feebly serrate subscutellar stria reduced, shallow, (Fig. 2a) punctures lacking or in single row, green or copper colored. georgiana (LeConte)

        - Elevated elytral costae black, strongly contrasting with coppery color of depressed areas (Fig. 4a.) Apical margin of elytra not serrate subscutellar stria deeply impressed (Fig. 4b), with numerous coarse copper-colored punctures. liberta (Germar)(Florida distribution based on literature records only).

        Species Identification: large shiny black beetle, Detroit USA - Biology

        Global invasive species database

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        Principal source:

        Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

        Review: Dr Anthony Cognato Department of Entomology Texas A&M University USA

        Publication date: 2005-06-24

        Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Xylosandrus compactus. Downloaded from on 24-06-2021.

        Maintaining healthy trees and shrubs is the first line of defence against the ambrosia beetles attacking weak hosts. This includes proper fertility, maintaining proper soil pH, and adequate soil moisture. Pruning and destruction of beetle-infested plant material is essential. Good tree care to promote tree vigor and health will help in resisting infestation or recovering from infestation.

        Chemical: Chemical control is not the best option for these beetles since the host is already very weak or dying.However studies show that Chlorpyrifos provided 83% mortality of all stages of the black twig borer infesting flowering dogwood in Florida (Mangold et al., 1977). Hata & Hara (1989) reported 100% mortality of adult females with chlorpyrifos. Marsden in 1972 recommended malathion (not to be applied to blooming orchids).

        Biological: "Literature on natural enemies indicates that the black twig borer is parasitized by at least one species of eulophid wasps of the genus Tetrastichus. Nine species of this genus, all accidentally or purposely introduced, are in Hawai‘i whether any are parasitizing black twig borer is not recorded" (Nishida, 1992).

        Species Identification: large shiny black beetle, Detroit USA - Biology

        In America north of Mexico, the subfamily Xylocopinae is composed of two genera, Ceratina (small carpenter bees) and Xylocopa (large carpenter bees). These bees get their common name from their nesting habits: small carpenter bees excavate tunnels in pithy stems of various bushes large carpenter bees chew nesting galleries in solid wood or in stumps, logs, or dead branches of trees (Hurd and Moure 1963). The large carpenter bees may become economic pests if nesting takes place in structural timbers, fence posts, wooden water tanks, or the like. The genus Ceratina has 21 species in America north of Mexico, two of which occur in Florida (Daly 1973). Xylocopa has seven species in America north of Mexico, with two species found in Florida.

        Figure 1. Adult large carpenter bee, Xylocopa sp. Photograph by Paul M. Choate, University of Florida.

        Distribution (Back to Top)

        Xylocopa micans Lepeletier is known from southeastern Virginia down the East coast of the U.S. to Florida, west to Texas, and south to Guatemala. The typical form of Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus) is known throughout the eastern United States southward to Texas and northern Florida the subspecies Xylocopa virginica krombeini Hurd is restricted to Florida from Sumter and Lake Counties south to Dade County (Hurd 1955, 1961).

        Identification (Back to Top)

        At various times, carpenter bees have been placed in the families Anthophoridae, Xylocopidae, and Apidae. Hurd and Moure (1963) traced the taxonomic history of these bees and found the most recent placement is within the Apidae (Krombein 1967). This family is characterized, in part, by the jugal lobe of the hind wing being either absent or shorter than the submedian cell and by the forewing having three submarginal cells. Within the family, carpenter bees are distinguished most easily by the triangular second submarginal cell, and by the lower margin of the eye coming almost in contact with the base of the mandible (i.e., the malar space is absent).

        The easiest method of separating Ceratina from Xylocopa is by size: Ceratina are less than 8 mm in length, whereas Xylocopa are 20 mm or larger.

        Figure 2. Differences in wing venation between the small carpenter bees, Ceratina spp., and the large carpenter bees, Xylocopa spp. Drawings by Division of Plant Industry.

        Xylocopa generally resemble bumble bees in size and somewhat in color, being black, metallic bluish or greenish black, or purplish blue. Some males have yellowish areas on the face. Both sexes may have pale or yellowish pubescence on the thorax, legs, or abdomen, but these hairs are not as abundant or as intensely colored as in bumble bees. Large carpenter bees are readily distinguished from bumble bees primarily by the absence of pubescence on the dorsum of the abdomen, which is somewhat glossy. They also lack a malar space (present in bumble bees), and the triangular second submarginal cell. The two species of Xylocopa which occur in Florida are the only species in the eastern United States, namely Xylocopa micans Lepeletier and Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus).

        Figure 3. Adult large carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus), with wing venation evident. Photograph by Division of Plant Industry.

        The two species of Xylocopa in Florida may be separated as follows:

        1. Eyes nearly meeting above antenna 13 segmented abdomen 7 segmented (males) . . . . . 2
        1'. Eyes widely separated antenna 12 segmented abdomen 6 segmented (females). . . . . 3

        2. Abdomen metallic greenish blue antennal scape yellow beneath legs with patches of pale pubescence. . . . . micans
        2'. Abdomen black with slight purplish tint antennal scape completely dark legs with dark pubescence . . . . . virginica

        3. Thorax with dorsal and lateral black pubescence body metallic purple. . . . . micans
        3'. Thorax with dorsal and lateral pale pubescence body mostly black. . . . . virginica

        Figure 4. Xylocopa heads: A: female B: male.

        Biology (Back to Top)

        Xylocopa micans:Little is known of the life history of this species. Hurd (1958) photographed a nest constructed in a dead Ligustrum branch. According to his report it was a sound twig with a diameter of 2.5 cm or more. The nest entrance was about 1 m above the ground, but entrances in other twigs were as low as 15 cm. The senior author found Xylocopa micans actively nesting in a red maple branch similar to the one reported by Hurd (1958). The twig was 1.6 cm in diameter near the nesting area, and projected straight up from the ground. The entrance was approximately 1.5 m from the ground and was 8 mm in diameter. The lowermost, or first, brood cell was 12 cm below the nest entrance. Three cells had been constructed when the nesting activity was interrupted on 13 May 1975.

        Figure 5. Large carpenter bee, Xylocopa micans Lepeletier, nest in twig entire twig (top) and longitudinal section (bottom). Photograph by Division of Plant Industry.

        Xylocopa virginica: Much has been written about this species: Rau (1933) provided one of the most complete accounts of its biology Hurd and Moure (1963) cited many literature references Balduf (1972) provided the most up-to-date summary of biology and literature Sabrosky (1962) provided additional mating behavior.

        The following account of life history is condensed from Balduf (1962): "Most reports indicate the use of dry, structural coniferous woods as nesting sites. Wood included Taxodium, Pinus, and Juniperus. Reports were also given for Magnolia planks and deciduous woods used in fence railings. Xylocopa virginica selects nesting sites in well-lighted areas where the wood is not painted or covered with bark. In general, these bees were gregarious, tending to nest in the same areas for generations. Old nests were refurbished, but new nests were also started. In new nests, female bees chewed their way into the wood, excavating a burrow about 15 mm in diameter. Boring proceeded more slowly against the grain (about 15 mm a day) than with the grain. The direction of galleries in the wood appeared to depend on the direction of the grain. If the grain were oriented vertically, the nests were vertical if horizontally, then the nests were horizontal with respect to the ground. Galleries extended about 30 to 45 cm in newly completed nests. New tunnels were smooth and uniform throughout, but older galleries showed evidence of less uniformity with random depressions and irregularities. These older galleries were believed to have been used by several generations of bees. After excavating the gallery, female bees gathered pollen, which was mixed with regurgitated nectar. The pollen mass was placed at the end of a gallery (or bottom if the nest were vertical), an egg was laid, and the female placed a partition or cap over the cell composed of chewed wood pulp. This process was repeated until a linear complement of six to eight end-to-end cells was completed. Females apparently constructed only one nest per year in the North bees emerged in the late summer and overwintered as adults with mating taking place in the spring. In Florida, however, Hubbard (in Howard 1892) reported at least two generations per year with broods in February-March and during the summer. Bees were active from November to January and from April to summer."

        Economic Importance (Back to Top)

        Chandler (1958) lists four types of damage done by carpenter bees: weakening of structural timbers, gallery excavation in wooden water tanks (especially in arid western areas), defecation streaking on houses or painted structures, and human annoyance. The last point is included since carpenter bee females may sting (rarely), and male bees may hover or dart at humans who venture into the nesting area. In general, carpenter bees are not much of a problem.

        Carpenter bees rarely attack painted or varnished wood. These bees often cause problems on structures by boring into the surface of the wood used as the back face of the trim under the eaves, as this surface is usually not painted. A buzzing or drilling sound is heard when the bee is boring into the wood. If the hole is not visible, often the case when the bee is boring into the backside of trim, look for sawdust on the ground under the hole.

        Figure 6. Entry hole drilled into structural wood by a large carpenter bee, Xylocopa sp. Photograph by University of Florida.

        Figure 7. Internal damage to structural wood by a large carpenter bee, Xylocopa sp., showing individual larval cells. Photograph by University of Florida.

        Management (Back to Top)

        If problems do arise, use a small amount of insecticide that is labeled for bees and wasps: this can be dust, wettable powders, microencapsulated products, or aerosols. The labeled pesticide should be blown into the nesting holes. This is more safely done with aerosols than with the other formulations. After a few days, the holes should be plugged with plastic wood, putty, or similar substance to allow the adult female to become exposed to the pesticide.

        Selected References (Back to Top)

        • Balduf WV. 1962. Life of the carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica (Linn.). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55: 263-271.
        • Borror DJ, Triplehorn CA, Johnson NF. 1989. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th Ed. Harcourt Brace, New York. 875 pp.
        • Chandler L. 1958. Seven species of carpenter bees are found in the United States. Pest Control 26(9): 36, 38, 40, 47.
        • Daly HV. 1973. Bees of the genus Ceratina in America north of Mexico. University of California Publication Entomology 74: 1-113.
        • Grissell EE, Sanford MT. (December 2011). Small carpenter bees, Ceratina spp.UF/IFAS Featured Creatures. EENY-101. (10 June 2014)
        • Howard LO. 1892. Note on the hibernation of carpenter bees. Proceedings of the Entomology Society of Washington 2: 331-332.
        • Hurd PD Jr. 1955. The carpenter bees of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 4: 35-72.
        • Hurd PD Jr. 1958. Observations on the nesting habits of some new world carpenter bees with remarks on their importance in the problem of species formation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 51: 365-375.
        • Hurd PD Jr. 1961. A synopsis of the carpenter bees belonging to the subgenus Xylocopoides Michener. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 87: 247-257.
        • Hurd PD Jr, Moure JS. 1963. A classification of the large carpenter bees (Xylocopini). University of California Publication Entomology 29: 1-365.
        • Krombein KV. 1967. Apoidea. In Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. Second Suppl. U.S. Department of Agriculture Monograph 2: 514-515.
        • Mallis A. (ed.) 1990. Handbook of Pest Control. 7th Edition. Franzak & Foster Co. Cleveland. 1152 pp.
        • Mitchell TB. 1962. Bees of the Eastern United States. Vol. II. North Carolina Agriculture Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152: 1-557.
        • Rau P. 1933. The Jungle Bees and Wasps of Barro Colorado Island. Privately printed, Kirkwood, MO. 324 pp.
        • Sabrosky CW. 1962. Mating in Xylocopa virginica. Proceedings of the Entomology Society of Washington 64: 184.

        Web Design: Don Wasik, Jane Medley
        Publication Number: EENY-100
        Publication Date: July 1999. Latest revision: June 2014. Reviewed: December 2017.

        Large Roaches (1.5"-or more)

        American Cockroach


        The American roach is reddish-brown, about 1.5 inches long or longer, winged, but seldom fly. American Roaches are also known as a "water bug" or "palmetto bug". They will fly when temperatures are above 85 degrees.

        Habits and Biology

        The American female roach will drop her egg capsule near a food source or protected area.
        As the American cockroaches mature they become more reddish-brown in appearance.

        Sanitation & Exclusion

        Exclusion techniques: caulking and screening for the American cockroach.

        Sanitation: Eliminate food, moisture, and harborage areas available to the roaches.

        American Roach Control Measures

        Generally speaking, control measures should concentrate on the outside of the building and points of entry of the American Roach.

        This is called a "perimeter or barrier" treatment.

        Read More.

        Australian Roach


        They can be identified by yellow stripes along the outer front edge of the wings. In Florida, they are commonly called "palmetto bug", just like the American Roach. The Australian roach is often confused with the American roach.

        Habits and Biology

        The Austrailan Roach is mainly found in the southern United States, but can be found in the northern states in greenhouses (where humidity is present). They are good fliers.They will enter buildings where their is enough food, humidity and heat available.

        Sanitation & Exclusion

        Practice exclusion techniques such as sealing any cracks, gaps or openings with caulking compound, putty or plastic wood. Eliminate pet food outside. Maintain tight fitting screens, doors and windows.

        Australian Roach Control Measures

        Generally speaking, control measures should concentrate on the outside of the building and points of entry of the Austalian Roach.

        This is called a "perimeter or barrier" treatment.

        Read More.

        Oriental Cockroach


        Oriental roaches are shiny black and are about 1.25 inches long. They have wings but can not fly. The total length for the female is 1 ¼" and 1" for the male.

        Habits and Biology

        Oriental roaches can be found in damp areas such as crawl spaces and basements, as well as kitchens. These roaches can live in low temperature ranges, living in protected sites during the winter.
        During drought time or unseasonably cold weather, they may move inside your home.

        Sanitation & Exclusion

        Caulk all penetrations through ground level walls. Stop water leaks, screen equipment overflow drains, and take overflow water away from buildings keep drain traps full or capped.

        Oriental Roach Control Measures

        Generally speaking, control measures with a residual insecticide, such as LambdaStar Ultra Cap 9.7 should concentrate on the outside of the building and points of entry. This is called a "perimeter or barrier" treatment.

        Read More.

        Smokybrown Cockroach


        This roach is slightly smaller than the American cockroach and they have a uniform mahogany color. These roaches fly at night toward lights.

        Habits and Biology

        Smokybrown roaches as a tropical cockroach are not all over the USA.
        They are common in central and east Texas,
        Gulf Coast, throughout Florida
        and up the eastern seaboard.

        Sanitation & Exclusion

        Although the Smokybrown roach has many places to habitat outside, it will enter if there is an entry point. Seal as many cracks and crevices as possible.

        Ventilate moist places. Control measures should concentrate on the outside of the building and points of entry of the Smokybrown Roach.

        Smokeybrown Roach Control Measures

        You may use concentrated residual sprays for Smokybrown Cockroach Control: inside or outside. Spray a 3-6 foot band around the entire house. Spray outside around doors, windows, pipe openings, and dryer vents.

        Read More.

        Woods Roach


        Woods roaches are very similar
        in appearance to the American roach They are slightly smaller than the American Cockroach, about 3/4 to 1 1/4 inch long.

        Habits and Biology

        The woods roach normal habitat is moist woodland areas, but they frequently become a household nuisance because they wander into or are carried into houses, with firewood, etc.

        Sanitation & Exclusion

        The insecticides used with success against other cockroach species are of very limited benefit against wood roaches. Exclusion techniques that prevent wood roach entry should be considered.

        Wood Roach Control Measures

        Occasionally, populations can build in crawl spaces under the house. Generally speaking, control measures should concentrate on the outside of the building and points of entry. This is called a "perimeter or barrier" treatment.

        Read More.

        *These photographs of the American, Smoky, and Woods cockroaches are courtesy of:
        University of Lincoln-Nebraska Dept. of Entomology

        Supplement: MGK's PDF of Roach Identification for a quick comparison glance.


        The following information is derived from Mackay, New World Carpenter Ants (2019)

        Camponotus laevissimus is a high elevation ant, mostly occurring at elevations of between 2000-2500 meters. It is found in ponderosa pine forests, oak forests, in sparse Robinia understory on a north facing slope and in pine/spruce/aspen forest. It is also found in mixed pine, deciduous forest, pine/oak riparian forests, pinyon juniper woodlands, pine/fir/oak transition, pine/spruce/fir forest and pine mixed with deciduous forest. It is occasionally found in urban habitats (Mackay and Mackay, 2002). Palladini et al. (2007) found it in temperate coniferous forests, often in younger stands.

        Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

        Distribution based on AntMaps

        Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

        Top 10 Different Types Of Alien Species On Earth

        Sighting of aliens have been reported by hundreds of people over the last one hundred years from different parts of the world. As per collective studies of all these reports, it is being calculated that there are as many as 82 different types of aliens that are being seen on earth! Here is a brief description about the top 10 different types of aliens that have been spotted on earth.

        Type 1 : Zeta Reticulans or Grey Aliens

        The most common type of aliens that are being seen across the globe by people of all ages is the zeta reticulan type, which is also commonly referred to as the ‘Greys’. These extraterrestrial beings are typically 3-4 feet tall and have large almond shaped black eyes. Their head is much larger than a regular human’s head and they have no noses, but only nostrils. Their arms are usually longer that has not more than three to four fingers. It is the Zeta reticulans who are thought to be the main culprits behind most human abductions.

        Type 2 : Little green men

        Another common type of alien is the little green men that have been reported to have been sighted by different people in different places. These types of extraterrestrials are humanoid creatures with a greenish skin color and their bodies are devoid of any hair. Some of the little green men have been reported to have antennas on their heads, which are much larger than a regular human head.

        The Nordics would look just like humans and they would have long blonde hair that would be maintained by both male aliens as well as the female ones. These aliens are not identifiable even if they walk among a crowd. The only way to identify them is when they manifest some of their extraterrestrial activities. These aliens usually have angular faces with blue eyes. The females of the Nordic alien type have a high sex appeal.

        Type 4 : Pleiadian Aliens

        The aliens of the Pleiadian type are characterized by round faces and tall figure and the rest of the features are soft but detailed. The overall appearance of the Pleiadians is a very pleasant one and although they do not have hair usually, but if someone has any hair on the heads, the hair is blonde colored. These aliens are known to be very gentle and peace loving by nature.

        Type 5 : Andromedan Aliens

        You would mistake the Andromedan aliens to be humans, as they look almost like humans, with the only difference being in their overall size. These aliens are bipedal energy beings who can read the minds of humans by means of telepathy.

        Another very common type of aliens is the reptilians who are tall and have scales over their humanoid body structure. These aliens would have webbed feet and would look more or less like a reptile when you see them for the first time.

        Type 7 : Alpha Draconian

        The most corrupt, hostile and vicious type of aliens are the alpha draconian. These aliens are believed to have come from Alpha Draconis and are characterized by giant reptilian features. These aliens are about 14 to 22 feet tall and weigh approximately 1800 pounds or more. They believe themselves to be the rightful owners of the humans who are lesser evolved beings as per their standards.

        Type 8 : Sirians Aliens

        The Sirians are those types of aliens that in spite of having a humanoid structure prefer to live around in the water. These aquatic aliens are mostly found in oceans and lakes where there is huge depth. They are known to have come from Sirius B Star system.

        The ancient Sumerians used to worship the Anunnaki as their god. The Anunnaki is nothing but aliens that had visited the planet of earth around four thousand years ago with the intention of enslaving humans to carry out farm work with them. The Anunnaki aliens look exactly like humans, but they are slightly larger than the aliens, with average height being 8-9 feet. These aliens are believed to have come from Nibiru, the twelfth planet in our solar system, which lies beyond Pluto and is yet to be discovered.

        Type 10 : Arcturian Aliens

        The arcturians are usually four to five feet tall with large heads and blue skin. The rest of their bodies are highly disproportionate. These types of aliens are believed to be the most ancient race of the entire Milky Way Galaxy and they are considered to be very intelligent, experienced and innovative.

        Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys). Photo by Steve Schoof.

        Euschistus spp.

        The genus Euschistus includes several species of stink bugs that are similar in appearance and biology to H. halys. They are all brownish in color, and have a wide host range that includes field crops, vegetables, fruits, and nuts. Some of the more common include:

        Brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) occurs throughout much of North America, but is most abundant in southeastern United States. Its shoulders are more pointed as opposed to rounded, and its bands on the antennae are yellowish and less apparent. Photo by Mike Quinn,

        Dusky stink bug (Euschistus tristigmus) also occurs throughout much of eastern North America, but is generally less abundant than either E. servus or E. variolarius. Sides of pronotum (shoulders) are sharply pointed, without orange tip. Photo by Mike Quinn,

        Onespotted stink bug (Euschistus variolarius) occurs throughout eastern North America and the Pacific Northwest, and in Canada from Quebec west to British Columbia. Pronotum (shoulder) is sharply pointed on the sides and often orange tipped. Males have a dark spot on the underside of the abdomen. Photo by roar,

        Consperse stink bug (Euschistus conspersus) is common in the western United States and British Columbia, Canada. A gray brown to green body with yellow to orange legs, and the antennae have darkened tips. Photo by J. Moore.

        Photos by Brent Short, USDA ARS AFRS.

        Spined Soldier Bug

        The spined soldier bug (Podisus maculiventris) is a common predatory stink bug that occurs throughout North America. Sides of pronotum pointed. The first segment of the proboscis (nose-like extension from the bug&rsquos head) is shorter and thicker on the spined soldier bug versus BMSB. Antennae are often reddish.

        Photos by Brent Short, USDA ARS AFRS.

        Rough stink bug (Brochymena quadripustulata). Photo by Mike Quinn,

        Rough Stink Bug

        Stink bugs in the genus Brochymena are commonly referred to as rough stink bugs, and are known to feed on both plants and other insects. Two of the more common species are B. quadripustulata and affinis. These species are relatively uniform brownish gray in color, and have a roughened, somewhat flattened appearance. The rough stink bug differs from the BMSB by the presence of a &ldquotooth&rdquo on each side of the face and a row of spines on the shoulder area.

        Photos by Brent Short, USDA ARS AFRS.

        Other Insects Sometimes Confused with BMSB

        Squash Bug (Anasa tristis). Photo: Stan Gilliam, CC license.
        Western Conifer-Seed Bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis). Photo: Kenneth Frank, CC license.
        Leaffooted Bug (Leptoglossus phyllopus). Photo: Iustin Cret, CC license.
        Boxelder Bug (Boisea trivittata). Photo: Graham Montgomery.

        Additional Resources

        Field Guide to Stink Bugs (PDF): This full-color guide provides identification information for stink bugs of agricultural importance in the upper southern region and mid-Atlantic states. Source: Virginia Cooperative Extension.