Which organs/tissues are defined as “peripheral organs/tissues”

Which organs/tissues are defined as “peripheral organs/tissues”

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In the following paper [1], I encountered one term "peripheral organs". Literally, based on my understanding, it should be related to the organs/tissues, such as skin, hair and ear in the human, and wing, antenna and leg in the insect. However, in reference [1], fat body, oviduct and hemocytes are listed as peripheral organs. Is there specific definition of "peripheral organ/tissue"?

Thank you!

[1] Verlinden, H., et al. (2010). "The role of octopamine in locusts and other arthropods." J Insect Physiol 56(8): 854-867.

The most common usage of "central" vs "peripheral" organs/tissues is: central nervous system (brain/spinal cord) vs all other organs/tissues:

  • "B cells in peripheral organs and the CNS" (from the article linked in the comment)
  • Nervous system includes central nervous system (brain/spinal cord) and peripheral nerves (spinal and all other nerves) (Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system).
  • n-3 PUFA and obesity: from peripheral tissues to the central nervous system (PubMed)
  • Atrial natriuretic factor receptors: distribution and regulation in central and peripheral tissues (PubMed)

However, depending on the context, different organs/tissues can be considered peripheral:

  • From the liver metabolism viewpoint, liver can be considered central and muscles and fat peripheral (Apoptosis and insulin resistance in liver and peripheral tissues… ).
  • From the intestinal absorption viewpoint, gut can be central and all other organs peripheral (From the gut to the peripheral tissues… ).

Peripheral organs and tissues are simply parts of the body that act as a response to a change in the environment, the body's functions, molecule levels, etc. They include the endocrine system organs as well as organs producing hormonal responses such as the pancreas producing insulin. When the skin and therefore the hypothalamus senses a drop in temperature, your body goes through natural responses such as shivering and contracting of the limbs. As for the oviduct, it is an organ that will respond with contractions and movement when an egg moves down it. As for hemocytes, it would make sense for them to be peripheral organisms for the body as they respond to oxygen deprivation in a cell. As a large multi cellular organism, it can be said that peripheral organs/tissues are parts of the body that provide intricate function or a reaction to an endangerment to the body.