Hanover College - Biology

Hanover College - Biology

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Hanover College

Meet the Faculty & Staff

Dr. Volansky serves as the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program Director and Associate Provost for Graduate Studies at Hanover College. Her diverse background includes teaching, small business ownership, and leadership experience. She was an associate professor at the University of Findlay weekend PTA to DPT Program for 17 years.

She earned her Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy from the Medical College of Ohio and a healthcare Masters in Business Administration from Baldwin Wallace College. She completed her Doctor of Science degree from Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions. She is a certified orthopedic clinical specialist and has a Hybrid Learning Certification from Evidence in Motion Institutes of Health Professions. Being a life-long learner, she recently earned her Doctor of Education degree from the University of Findlay.

Dr. Volansky is an orthopedic physical therapist with an eclectic background in manual therapy, McKenzie method of diagnosis and therapy, instrument-assisted soft tissue massage, and joint mobilization/manipulation. She has two recent publications related to teaching hands-on physical therapy skills in a hybrid environment. She is a member of the Orthopedic, Education, and Health Care Policy & Administration (HPA) Sections of the APTA. She is a nominating committee member for the technology sig of the HPA section.

She lives in Avon Lake, Ohio, with her husband and family. She enjoys golfing, biking, and warm-weather activities.

Dr. Denton serves as the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program Director of Clinical Education. With a background in multiple levels of clinic management, clinical education, and weekend continuing education lecturing, he always has had a passion for manual therapy, connection to clinically relevant human anatomy, and specializations of trigger point dry needling and vestibular rehabilitation.

He earned the Bachelor of Science (Biology/Chemistry) and Doctor of Physical Therapy degrees from Youngstown State University and is a Doctor of Education candidate with expected graduation in December of 2020 at Marshall University. Clinically, Dr. Denton specializes in trigger point dry needling, instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization, thrust joint manipulation, and vestibular rehabilitation.

His research stems around hybrid educational theory, trigger point dry needling, and human anatomy. Additionally, he has an advanced certification in Integrative Trigger Point Dry Needling (CIDN), cert. IASTM, Hybrid Learning Certification from Evidence in Motion Institutes of Health Professions. He is an active member of the American Physical Therapy Association and serves as a chairperson for the OPTA East Central District. David is a member of the APTA Vestibular Special Interest Group, AAOMPT Member, and belongs to the Vestibular Disorders Association.

He resides in Canfield, Ohio, with his wife, son, and daughter. In his spare time, as a foodie, he loves eating, enjoys fixing anything broken around the house, tackling building projects, weightlifting, running, and spending time outdoors with his family.

Dr. Kline is an Associate Professor of Physical Therapy and the Director of Admissions at Hanover College within the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. Dr. Kline earned his Bachelor of Art of Psychology from Benedictine University in 2003, his Doctor of Physical Therapy degree from Midwestern University in 2006, and his Masters in Business Administration in Health Services Management at Ursuline College in 2011. In 2017, he completed his Doctor of Education degree in Organizational Leadership from Argosy University and plans to continue to explore strategies to improve job satisfaction among clinicians in the physical therapy profession. He has presented at a local, state, and national level at conferences on interprofessional education, education pipelines, and student success initiatives.

Dr. Kline is a member of the APTA Education Section and currently serves on the Executive Board as Treasurer and Delegate for the Ohio Physical Therapy Association. He is also a board member for the Greater Cleveland YMCA and the Aurora Youth Football & Cheer League. Dr. Kline is an experienced clinician and has worked in various outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation settings throughout his career. He currently resides in northeast Ohio near the Greater Cleveland Area.

Dr. Boyce is a Professor of Physical Therapy and the Director of Student Affairs at Hanover College within the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. He received a Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy from Oakland University, a Master's degree in Orthopedic Physical Therapy and Electrophysiology from the University of Kentucky, and a Doctorate Degree in Leadership Education from Spalding University. He is dual board-certified in Orthopedics and Clinical Electrophysiologic physical therapy from the American Physical Therapy Association. He has a Hybrid Learning Certification from Evidence in Motion Institutes of Health Professions. Dr. Boyce has numerous scientific publications and published the book "Orthopedic Physical Therapy Secrets."

Dr. McFadden serves as the Director of Curriculum at Hanover College Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. She has a diversified background that includes administration, teaching, patient care in multiple settings, and small business ownership. She served as a Program Director and Instructor at Edison State Community College PTA Program for four years. Dr. McFadden is a seasoned clinician and has worked in the Physical Therapy field for 25 years.

She earned her AAS in Physical Therapist Assistant from Sinclair Community College. She completed her Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy at the University of Findlay PTA to PT Weekend Program. She has a strong belief in life-long learning therefore, she earned her Doctor of Physical Therapy degree from Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts. She furthered her knowledge by completing a graduate certificate in Health Science Educational Leadership from the University of Montana. Dr. McFadden holds a certification in lymphedema and chronic venous management and a Hybrid Learning Certification from Evidence in Motion Institutes of Health Professions.

Dr. McFadden has practiced in many different venues, including hospital inpatient, inpatient rehab, outpatient neuro, outpatient orthopedics, lymphedema clinic, home health, and long-term care facilities. Her clinical experience includes treating patients with wounds, lymphedema, and other integumentary impairments. She was one of the co-founders of the lymphedema support group for Upper Valley Medical Center and is a member of the Geriatrics, Clinical Electro & Wound Management, and Education sections of the APTA. In addition to the APTA membership, Dr. McFadden is a member of the National Lymphedema Network.

Dr. McFadden lives in Wilmington, Ohio, with her husband, two daughters, and her woodle Gracie. She enjoys cooking, baking, spending time with family and friends, and going to the beach.

Robert Scott Van Zant, PT, PhD

Director of Research & Faculty Development | Clinical Professor of Physical Therapy

Dr. Van Zant is a Clinical Professor and Director of Research & Faculty Development in the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. He has over 25 years of university teaching experience over 20 in the discipline of physical therapist education at the University of Findlay. Prior to his academic career, Dr. Van Zant served as Research Physiologist at the USDA Energy and Protein Nutrition Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. He earned his doctoral degree in Exercise Physiology from Kent State University, Master of Physical Therapy degree from Northern Arizona University, and Master of Arts degree in Exercise Physiology and Bachelor of Science degree in Biology Teaching from Ball State University. Dr. Van Zant's areas of teaching specialization include exercise physiology, health and wellness, cardiopulmonary physical therapy, and evidence based practice methods. His publication history and research interests are in the areas of exercise and nutrition as they impact health.

Joe Girard, DPT, DSc, OCS, CMPT

Clinical Associate Professor of Physical Therapy

Dr.Girard is a Clinical Associate Professor of Physical Therapy in the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. He received his Doctor of Physical Therapy from Franklin Pierce University and a Doctor of Science in Orthopedic and Manual Physical Therapy from Andrews University. He is board certified in orthopedic physical therapy through the American Physical Therapy Association. He is a certified manual physical therapist through the North American Institute of Orthopedic Manual Therapy. He has a Hybrid Learning Certification from Evidence in Motion Institute of Health Professions. Dr.Girard has co-authored numerous peer-reviewed publications. His research interests include orthopedic and sports physical therapy and complementary and alternative therapies in physical therapy. Dr.Girard is an experienced clinician with an orthopedic outpatient clinical focus. Prior to Hanover College, he held an appointment at the Franklin Pierce University Doctor of Physical Therapy Program.

Dr. Jacks transitioned from the Hanover College Kinesiology and Integrative Physiology department to the DPT program. His undergraduate and Master's degrees are in Exercise Physiology/Science, PhD major in Exercise Physiology and minor in Anatomy at the University of Toledo and the Medical College of Ohio. He is experienced in teaching Anatomy, Physiology, Exercise Physiology, and Cardiopulmonary. He held clinical positions in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in community hospitals over a period of 6 years prior to academic appointments. Prior to Hanover College he held appointments at University of Louisville, University of Kentucky, and Winston-Salem State University. He is a Certified American College of Sports Medicine - Clinical Exercise Physiologist. Recent research initiatives include the long-term neurological implications of head trauma in former contact football players and the relationship of musculoskeletal injuries to single sport participation.

Rebecca A. Martin, PT, DPT, PhD, NCS

Clinical Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy

Dr. Martin's teaching within the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program focuses on neurorehabilitation. She serves as the primary instructor for Movement Sciences, Clinical Neuroscience, and Neuromuscular Physical Therapy I. She earned a Bachelor of Health Sciences and a Master of Science in Physical Therapy from Misericordia University. She earned her Doctor of Physical Therapy Degree from the MGH Institute of Health Professions. Most recently, she attained a PhD in Physical Therapy from Nova Southeastern University, where she completed her dissertation on "The Effects of Cueing on Sit to Stand Transfers in Parkinson Disease."

Nationally, Dr. Martin serves as the Chair of the Academy of Neurologic Physical Therapy's (ANPT) Degenerative Disease Special Interest Group and the Chair of the American Physical Therapy Association's (APTA) Cross Academy/Section COVID-19 Core Outcome Measures Task Force. Other roles she has held include Combined Section Meeting Committee Member for the ANPT, ANPT Degenerative Disease Special Interest Group Nominating Committee Member, and APTA Awards Committee Member. Locally, Dr. Martin runs a support group and exercise class for individuals with Parkinson disease. She is also a founding board member of the Seaway Parkinson's Coalition, which promotes access to information and healthcare to an underserved population. Additionally, she coaches youth sports. Internationally, Dr. Martin organizes intercultural learning experiences with physical therapists and their professional organizations, professors, researchers, and students in North and South America to advance the field of physical therapy.

Dr. Martin is an American Board of Physical Therapy Specialties Board Certified Clinical Specialist in Neurologic Physical Therapy. She continues her clinical practice of 13 years working primarily with individuals with Parkinson disease or recovering from concussion. She enjoys treating patients in local wellness centers and athletic training offices and via telerehabilitation.

Dr. Martin lives in the rural "north country" of New York with her husband and two children. As a big believer in work/life balance, she will be the first to tell you that the time she spends with her family hiking, back country kayak camping, or traveling the globe is what makes her most effective at her job (and happy).

Mary Saloka Morrison, PT, DScPT, MHS, GCS

Clinical Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy

Dr. Morrison is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program at Hanover College. She received a Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy at Cleveland State University, a Master of Health Science in Physical Therapy from the University of Indianapolis, and a Doctor of Science in Physical Therapy from the University of Baltimore, Maryland. She is a board certified geriatric clinical specialist and has a Hybrid Learning Certification from Evidence in Motion Institutes of Health Professions. She is a career-long member of the APTA and participates in the Geriatric and Neurology sections.

Dr. Morrison has been a clinician serving patients across the lifespan. Most recently, she practiced at the Cleveland Clinic in out-patient rehabilitation as a Clinical Specialist and worked with geriatric and neurological populations. She was a founding member of their Neurological Residency program where she was the lead faculty for Stroke unit and participated in the Movement Disorders unit. She was co-creator of physical therapy competency development and delivery for osteoporosis and falls best practice. She gave continuing education courses in the areas of spasticity management, multiple sclerosis and falls evaluation and treatment.

Dr. Morrison lives in northeast Ohio and enjoys swimming, kayaking, boarding, and boating on Lake Erie with friends and family. She also loves winter recreation: the more snow the better. She is a registered yoga teacher and integrates yoga into her treatments as well as her lifestyle. She is committed to life-long wellness and the support of others in that pursuit.

Mike Richardson, PT, DPT, DHSc, GCS, COMT

Clinical Associate Professor of Physical Therapy

Dr. Richardson is a Clinical Associate Professor of Physical Therapy in the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. He received his Masters in Physical Therapy from University of Evansville, Doctor of Physical Therapy from University of Montana, and a Doctor of Health Science from University of Indianapolis. He is a board certified geriatric specialist through the American Physical Therapy Association. He is a certified orthopedic manual therapist through Maitland-Australian Physiotherapy Seminars. Additionally, he has earned certifications in Hybrid Learning from Evidence in Motion Institute of Health Professions, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in the Workplace from University of South Florida, and Applying the Quality Matters Rubic from Quality Matters.

Dr. Richardson's past clinical practice settings include acute care, outpatient, and home health. He is a career-long member of the APTA and currently serves on the Home Health Handbook Revision Work Group. His current research focuses on student well-being and learning. He has presented at state and national conferences and has a variety of peer-reviewed disseminations.

He and his wife live in north Texas. As a strong proponent of wellness and work-life balance, he enjoys a variety of activities including cooking, traveling, yoga, and running.

Andrew Pretorius MS

Mr. Pretorius serves as the Director of Operations for the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. He comes to Hanover College with over ten years of experience as a researcher in the health sciences and ecology fields. He earned his Master's degree in Natural Resource Science and Management from the University of Minnesota.

He lives in Hanover, Indiana, with his wife and children and enjoys hiking, cooking, and spending time with his family.

Mr. Tipton serves as the Associate Director for Graduate Studies at Hanover College. He brings years of enrollment management and customer service experience from his previous roles as a Student Account Counselor, and most recently as an Assistant Registrar at Azusa Pacific University in Southern California.
He earned his Bachelor of Science in Communication from the University of North Florida and his Master of Arts in Executive Leadership from Azusa Pacific University. He previously worked for the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company in Amelia Island, FL, and the Langham Hospitality Group in Pasadena, CA, and is excited to leverage his service commitment to students, faculty, and staff at Hanover College.

Garnet lives in Hanover, Indiana, and enjoys music, competition barbeque, and weekend adventures with his wife and family.

Careen Turner MS '14

Careen Turner is the Admission Coordinator for the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. Careen earned her Bachelor of Art in Communication with a minor in Business from Hanover College in 2014. She later went on to earn her Masters of Science in Non-Profit Management from Northeastern University in 2018. Careen has a strong customer service background and passion for serving others. Careen serves locally on the Madison Chamber of Commerce Ambassador Committee and runs with the local Madison Area Run Club. She enjoys coaching volleyball, reading and DIY projects.

Elsa Conboy

Ms. Conboy serves as Administrative Coordinator for the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program. She brings with her over 20 years of service and experience at Hanover College in the undergraduate program. She looks forward to supporting this new program with her experience in budgets, accounting, event coordination, faculty/staff support, and student services. She earned her Bachelor of Science Degree in Accounting from Metropolitan State College in Denver, Colorado.


A DPT degree requires personal commitment to growth: in academics, professional behavior, innovation and service.

Biology teaching at Hanover college, 1832-1984.

ABSTRACT. Instruction in the biological sciences at Hanover College is traced over a century and one half. Teaching methods and innovations, buildings and rooms, curricular changes in biological subjects, and individual teachers are described. The impact of biology teaching is measured (imperfectly) by the number of alumni who earned advanced degrees in biology (89) and medicine (276).

Keywords: History, Hanover College, biology, teaching methods

Classes began at Hanover in 1827, but instruction in the earliest years was at the high school level. College level instruction probably began in 1831. The first baccalaureate degrees were conferred in 1834 (Baker 1978 Hanover College catalog 1834). Biological science first appeared in the curriculum in 1836, when one term of botany became part of the natural philosophy course. By 1857 there were three terms of biology: botany, zoology, and anatomy-physiology. The entire curriculum was prescribed until 1906, so that each student had to take each course, with very few exceptions. The biology curriculum expanded with adoption of the elective system in 1906 and later with expansion of the faculty (catalogs Martin 1954).

The first Hanover professor with a real graduate school knowledge of biology was Frank Bradley, who came in 1868. He revolutionized the courses, using field trips and lectures rather than textbook-recitations. Regular laboratories in all biological subjects began in 1881, under Harvey Young (catalogs Millis 1928).

The first full-time biology professor was Leonhard Huber in 1926. Before then, the biologist had to teach some other subject also-- usually Latin, geology, or chemistry (catalogs faculty minutes). A second professor position began in 1947, a third in 1949, a fourth in 1966, and a fifth in 1968 (catalogs Baker 1988).

In the following lists and details, dates for faculty tenure are given by academic year, but other dates refer to the date of catalog publication. The college catalogs, faculty minutes, and most of the other manuscripts cited are housed in the archives of the Duggan Library of Hanover College. The first person plural is used during my own tenure (1949-84) for departmental actions in which I participated.

Teaching methods.--Prior to 1868 all biology teaching was by recitation from assigned textbooks, with occasional lectures (S. Coulter in Millis 1928 Wiley 1917). There must have been a few demonstrations for instance in 1859 Augustus King exhibited his collection of live "frogs, lizards, snakes, etc." in the basement of Classic Hall to students and faculty (Garritt 1907).

Textbooks have always been chosen by the professors. Until 1888 they were listed in the catalog: in botany--1840--49 Olmstead, Vol. 2 1850-56, 1858-59, and 1862-68 Wood 1857, 1860-61 and 1869-87 Gray. In zoology--185 1-56 Cutter 1857-80 Agassiz or Agassiz & Gould 188 1-87 Orton. In anatomyphysiology--1849 Jarvis 1850-63 Cutter 1864-69 Dalton 1870-87 Huxley. In general biology--1882-87 Huxley & Martin. Since 1887 local book lists and (since 1949) personal knowledge indicate typical textbook choices for American colleges and universities.

In 1868 Bradley joined the faculty, fresh from the graduate school of Yale University. He instituted field trips (called "excursions") in botany (and geology) with collection and identification of specimens. Thompson Nelson, who followed Bradley and taught for two years (1869-71) continued the field trips and lectured very well (S. Coulter in Millis 1928 J. G. Coulter 1940). I have found no record of the teaching methods used by John Hussey and Manuel Drennan (187 1-74). John Coulter (1874-79) extended the botany field trips and study of plant specimens with the use of his extensive personal herbarium (faculty minutes). Young (1879-1926) instituted the preparation and study of microscope slides by students in 1881 in botany and in anatomy-physiology and the laboratory study of specimens in zoology in 1889. (These are catalog dates regular laboratory exercises for students in Young's biology courses probably began earlier.) By 1905 weekly two-hour laboratory periods in all biology courses were listed in the catalog. In 1925 the catalog description of a mammalian anatomy course was given as one hour of lecture and six hours of laboratory dissection per week (probably it was taught by Leonhard Huber).

In 1875, while he was on the Hanover faculty, Coulter started the Botantical Gazette, a respected scientific journal which continued through 1992. During the four years it was published at Hanover it included numerous short notes on the plants of Indiana by Coulter and several each by Hanover alumni Stanley Coulter (John's brother), Young, and Charles Barnes (J.M. Coulter, Botanical Gazette 1875-88).

Joseph Hyatt (1929-53) included thorough laboratory work or field trips in all his courses except human anatomy, physiology, hygiene, and teaching of biology. In 1952 we added experimental laboratories in animal physiology and in bacteriology. From 1952-84, all biology courses included at least one weekly laboratory or field trip except small-credit courses in cell biology (for the first three years it was taught) and human nutrition (taught only 1953-60) and seminar (1979-84). Classes were primarily lectures, with some recitations and student reports from 1949-84.

In 1962 the entire college curriculum was revised --"The Hanover Plan." It included a requirement for a full course, 4.5 semester hours, of independent study for all seniors. For biology majors, this meant an individual research project (in laboratory or field) under a professor's direction with library reading and a written report, as well as an oral report in the senior seminar. Many of these were of high quality, both as learning experiences for the students and scientific contributions (personal recollection). At least nine of the reports (1962-84) were published in scientific journals. However, this was not the first instance of senior research projects in biology. As early as 1898 the catalog allowed for an "advanced biology" course in the senior year, taken as an overload. In practice, under Young this usually meant that a capable student worked on a plant taxonomy project in field and herbarium (faculty minutes Banta 1950). Even earlier, in 1871, as a senior student Young published a 52-page report o n the plants of Jefferson County (Young 1871)! I am unaware of any formalized undergraduate research from 1926-1951, but a catalog listing of courses in botanical problems began in 1949 and zoological problems in 1951. Under this program (1951-1962), one to three senior students per year worked on individual research projects under faculty direction (personal recollection). At least two of these were published, and some were later expanded into graduate research projects (as were others before and since).

Public examinations in all subjects were held by a committee of the Board of Trustees from 1850 through 1878 at the close of each college year. These were sometimes oral and sometimes written, or partly written, and were for all students. Beginning in 1858, these public examinations were for freshmen and juniors only for studies of the year just being completed, but for sophomores and seniors for the entire preceding two years of study (catalogs).

"Private" examinations by the professor in the course were given monthly in 1850, but irregularly "at the pleasure of the professor" beginning in 1858. Beginning in 1865 (faculty minutes) students were graded daily on their recitations. By 1879 (faculty minutes and catalog) students were graded not only daily on their recitations, but sometimes on in-course examinations, and always on a two-hour written examination at the end of the term-course, the last counted as 20% of the course grade. Sometime in the early twentieth century the requirements of 20% for the final exam and the daily recitation grade were dropped. We began laboratory examinations ("practicals") in 1949 in most courses.

Professors.--The professors who taught biology at Hanover College are listed in Table 1 (Baker 1988 catalogs). The long tenure of several biology professors, Young, 47 years Webster, 35 years Maysilles, 33 years MacMillan, 32 years Pray, 29 years and Hyatt, 25 years, certainly made the biology program stable. Probably it also made for steady, incremental improvement in teaching.

Buildings and equipment.--From 1857-1897 a basement room in Old Classic Hall served as a laboratory and museum for biology. (The building burned in 1941.) Science Hall, with a museum and classroom-laboratory on the third floor, served for biology from 1897-1919, but it burned in 1919. It was rebuilt that same year, but with only two floors biology occupied a second floor room for classes and laboratories from 1919-1947, when the building was razed (catalogs bulletins Young 1899). Goodrich Hall served from 1947-2000 the second floor, only, was devoted to biology until 1975 a renovation in 1975 expanded space for biology laboratories, classrooms and offices to the second floor and half of the first floor (personal recollections).

The burning of Science Hall in 1919 must have been a severe blow to Harvey Young. Not only were the college herbarium and collection of mounted animals destroyed, but also Young's personal herbarium, collected and amassed over 50 years (bulletins Banta 1950). Science Hall was soon rebuilt, but with less space for teaching, and without the museum and herbarium. How many microscopes, and of what types, there were before 1925 is unrecorded. A photograph of the biology laboratory in 1925 shows eight microscopes, with several more apparently out of the picture (bulletin 1927). My memory indicates 27 serviceable compound microscopes in 1949, and one binocular stereoscopic microscope. Also, there were three rotary microtomes, four micro-projectors, and two small incubators in the way of biological instrumentation. From 1950-1984 there was a steady acquisition of biological equipment and instruments, including many more microscopes, an autoclave, constant-temperature rooms, animal physiology equipment, centrifuges, specialized storage cabinets, Warburg apparatus, binoculars, telescope, respirometers, etc.

Curriculum.--Until 1906, the entire "classical" curriculum, which was taken by most students, was prescribed. The "scientific" curriculum, also, was prescribed it differed from the "classical" in the language courses taken, but not in the science courses taken, with a few temporary exceptions. All biology courses offered are listed here. Credit (in the modern sense) was not stated until 1902 all credit hours are given here in semester hour equivalents. The term was a quarter-year from 1840-1926 a semester before 1840 and 1926-62 two long terms and a short spring term 1962-84. (All information is from catalogs, except minor modifications after 1949 from personal knowledge.)

1821-57: Variation from no biology in the curriculum up to two terms--botany and anatomy-physiology.

1858-1880: Three or four terms of biology--botany, zoology, and anatomy-physiology.

1881-1905: Five to seven terms of biology--botany, zoology, general biology, hygiene, and anatomy-physiology in various combinations.

1906-1914: Elective system began: these courses were offered-botany 4-8 hours, zoology 2.7-3.7 hours, anatomy-physiology 2.3-2.7 hours.

1915-28: Departmental majors began 2 majors required. These courses offered--botany 6-8 hours, general biology 8-10 hours, zoology 6-8 hours, anatomy-physiology 2.7-3 hours, human embryology 2.7-3 hours, bacteriology 0-2.7 hours, mammalian anatomy 0-2.7 hours, teaching of biology 0-2 hours.

1929--46: Only one departmental major (and one minor) required from 1929 on. These courses offered--general biology 10 hours, advanced zoology 8 hours, advanced botany 0-6 hours, human anatomy 0-3 hours, hygiene 0-3 hours, embryology 3-4 hours, physiology 0-5 hours, teaching of biology 2 hours, vertebrate comparative anatomy 0-4 hours, histology 0-4 hours.

1947-60: Separate departments of botany and zoology created. In botany-general 10 hours, ecology 3 hours, taxonomy 3 hours, heredity 0-3 hours, anatomy 0-3 hours, physiology 0-3 hours, botanical problems 0-3 hours, bacteriology 0-4 hours, pathogenic bacteriology 0-4 hours. In zoology--general 10 hours, entomology 4 hours, human anatomy 0-3 hours, physiology 3 hours, hygiene 0-3 hours, embryology 4 hours, histology 0-4 hours, nutrition 0-2 hours, vertebrate comparative anatomy 4 hours, teaching of biology 2 hours, ornithology 0-3 hours, parasitology 0-4 hours, vertebrate field zoology 0-3 hours, zoological problems 0-3 hours, cell biology 0-2 hours.

1961: Botany and zoology recombined as single biology department. Courses little changed from previous year.

1961-78: Curriculum completely revised in 1962 ("The Hanover Plan"). The overall intent of the curricular revision was to require the student to concentrate more on fewer courses, with each course worth the same as each other course--4.5 semester hours--and taken in a logical sequence during his or her four years. There was also an increase in the natural science requirement. Each student took three courses during each of two 14-weeks terms and one course during a 4-weeks spring term. Biology courses offered were: general biology I, general biology II, geneticscell biology, vertebrate embryology, vertebrate field zoology, plant morphology, animal physiology, vertebrate comparative anatomy, genetics-evolution, bacteriology, animal parasitology, ecology, plant taxonomy, plant physiology, special senior general biology, independent study-seminar. For parts of this period these courses were added-radiation biology, biogeography of plants, non-flowering plants, animal behavior, human biology, genetics (as a full course, with genetics-cell biology dropped), cell biology (as a full course).

1979-84: Curriculum completely revised ("Revised Hanover Plan"). The overall intent of the curricular revision was to decrease the concentration on particular courses, with more courses taken and the natural science requirement lessened. Each student took four courses during each of two 131/2 weeks terms and one course during a 4-weeks spring term. Each course was worth 3.4 semester hours credit. Biology courses were: elementary biology, general biology I, general biology II, general biology Ill , biological conservation, ornithology, ecology, human anatomy-physiology, animal physiology I, animal physiology II, mammalogy, vertebrate embryology, genetics, microbiology, animal parasitology, cell biology, plant taxonomy, plant morphology, plant physiology, non-flowering plants, vertebrate comparative anatomy, independent study, seminar (1/4 credit). For parts of this period these courses were added--internship, histology, animal behavior, immunology, special topics.

1906-84: The general graduation natural science requirements for all B.A. or B.Sc. candidates under the elective system were changed several times. From 1906-26 they were 4-8 hours of botany and 4-8 hours of physical science. From 1927-61 they were 10-12 hours of natural science, in some years including mathematics. From 1962-78 they were 13.5 hours in two or three natural science departments. From 1979-84 they were 6.8 hours in two natural science departments.

Hanover alumni classes through 1984.-- One measure of the effectiveness of college teaching is the list of alumni who have earned advanced (= graduate) degrees in the subject. Using this yardstick, 43 Hanover alumni have earned a Ph.D. in biology (Table 2) and 46 additional alumni a master's degree in biology (Table 3). Another 21 who were, or are, high school teachers of biology earned a master's degree in education (Table 5). Four others who did not earn an advanced degree in biology (but did in medicine or chemistry Table 4) published numerous scientific papers in physiology (Guthrie 1962). It would be misleading to imply that only biology, of a premedical student's courses, prepared him or her for medical school. Nonetheless, it is relevant that 228 Hanover alumni earned an M.D. degree (Table 6), 10 a doctorate in veterinary medicine, 32 a doctorate in dentistry, and 6 a doctorate in osteopathic medicine (Table 7).

Tables 3-7 were compiled from various sources: alumni directories, Guthrie 1953, 1958, 1962 manuscripts, my personal records, and returns from a questionnaire sent out by the alumni office in 1999 to biology major alumni. Probably the figures are incomplete, despite these efforts. Four alumni were included in the Ph.D. list although they had only earned an M.A. in biology, and four were included in the master's degree list although they had no earned graduate degree. These step-ups were mostly from Visher's (1951) accounts of important Indiana scientists.

Frank Baker, Jeffrey Hughes, Paul MacMillan and John Ricketts were helpful critics of the manuscript.

Baker, F.S. 1978. Glimpses Of Hanover's Past, 1827-1977. Published by author, Hanover. 319 pp.

Baker, F.S. 1988. More Glimpses Of Hanover's Past. Published by author, Hanover. 319 pp.

Banta, E. 1950. Personal recollections of Edna Banta, alumna of 1924, as told to the author.

Coulter, J.G. 1940. The Dean. Purdue University Alumni Office, Lafayette. 273 pp.

Coulter, J.M. 1875-1888. Botanical Gazette, Vols. 1-14.

Garritt, J.B. 1907. Materials for a history of Hanover College from 1849-1879. Unpublished manuscript. 182 pp.

Guthrie, N. 1953. History of science at Hanover College. Unpublished manuscript. 57 pp.

Guthrie, N. 1958. Handwritten card file of Hanover alumni who earned graduate degrees.

Guthrie, N. 1962. Bibliography of chemical publications of alumni of Hanover College. Unpublished manuscript. 110 pp.

Hanover College Bulletin. 1905-1996. Published usually quarterly, but sometimes irregularly. Mostly promotional material. Includes alumni directories of 1912, 1928, 1976, 1985, and 1996.

Hanover College Catalog. 1833-1984. Published annually except 1867. Hanover College, Hanover.

Hanover College faculty minutes. Handwritten, 1833-1931.

Martin, B. 1954. History of science work at Hanover College. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 53:243-247.

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As a geology student at Hanover, you will develop your scientific reasoning through discoveries in the classroom and in the field. Geology studies are supported by a wide range of hands-on experiences that make learning come to life.

Our small class sizes allow for lively discussions about compelling issues in geology, ranging from global warming to depletion of our natural resources. You will have opportunities to work with state-of-the-art laboratory technology and pursue research in collaboration with our faculty. You will gain valuable field experience in at least one of Hanover’s off-campus travel courses to the Grand Canyon, Ghost Ranch, N.M., or even northwest Scotland, where you will learn how to recognize rock types and geological structures, as well as apply your knowledge to field-mapping and problem-solving.

Our students are prepared for graduate school or careers in environmental geology, geotechnical consulting, hydrology and the energy and mineral industries. As a Hanover geology graduate, you will be equipped with the knowledge and skills to address critical issues that will shape our planet’s future.


We offer majors in Geology, Environmental Geology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics the latter three majors are offered within our interdisciplinary Environmental Science Program.

Courses taught by our faculty:

  • GEO 161 – Physical Geology
  • GEO 162 – Geology of National Parks and Monuments
  • GEO 163 – Environmental Geology
  • GEO 221 – Introduction to Geographic Information Science
  • GEO 224 – Mineralogy and Petrology
  • GEO 237 – Field Study
  • GEO 239 – Field Studies in Historical Geology
  • GEO 261 – Issues in Environmental Geology
  • GEO 262 – History of Life
  • GEO 323 – Structural Geology
  • GEO 327 – Sedimentary Deposits
  • GEO 328 – Physical Hydrogeology
  • GEO 334 – Geomorphology
  • ENV 265 – Global Environmental Change
  • ENV 201/401 – Environmental Science Seminar

We also offer directed studies (GEO 370) developed by students in collaboration with a faculty member and special topics courses (GEO 160/260/360) when student demand merits a course not normally taught in our curriculum.

All of our majors are required to complete either an Internship (ENV 457), a Senior Seminar (GEO 461), or Senior Thesis (GEO 471 or ENV471).


The geology department offers numerous exciting opportunities for studying geology in the field:

Our program considers getting students into the field, examining the real thing, to be its highest priority. As such, we offer several field courses during the college’s May Semester:

  • GEO 162 – Geology of National Parks and Monuments
    An investigation of geological features, processes, and history through field studies conducted in selected national parks and monuments in the southwestern United States. The course normally culminates with an extended backpacking trip to describe and interpret the geology of the Grand Canyon.
  • GEO 237 – Field Study
    Field study of geologic principles, processes, and features as observed on field trips to selected areas of geologic interest near Ghost Ranch, New Mexico. Geologic mapping, aerial photograph interpretation, description and interpretation of stratigraphy and geologic structures are emphasized.
  • GEO 239 – Field Studies in Historical Geology
    An introduction to the scientific study of geology with an emphasis on reconstructing the regional geologic and tectonic history of a geologically significant national or international setting. Students learn to identify and describe rock types, rock sequences, fossils, geologic structures, and surficial deposits and landforms understand their formative processes and place them within a given region’s developmental history.
  • Bevis, K. A., Neace, S. D., Redmond, M., Slover, H. In the Playground of Giants A Geo-educational Website for Any Audience.
  • Ford, J. and VAN ITEN, H. Slope processes and geological hazards in the Ohio River Valley near Hanover. Indiana.
  • Neace, S. D., and Bevis, K.A. The Grand Canyon as an Undergraduate Field Laboratory.
  • Neace, S. D., and Bevis, K. A. Improved Sinkhole Mapping in Jefferson County, Indiana Using LiDAR Technology.
  • Rice, A. B., and Van Iten, H. Gravicalymene Celebra (Raymond) from the Silurian Laurel Dolostone: Where are the Pieces?
  • Rogers, K., and Bevis, K.A. Revised Mapping of the Location and Extent of Glaciation in the Central Oregon Cascades Based on LiDAR Data.
  • Slover, H., and Bevis, K. A. Rock Falls and Debris Flows in Semiarid Canyons of the Southwestern United States.
  • Van Iten, H. Tollerton, V. P. Jr., Ford, R. and Hunter, K. Taphonomy and Paleoecology of Paraconularia planicostata (Dawson) (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from the Late Mississippian Big Cove Formation (Newfoundland) and Lower Windsor Group (Nova Scotia), Eastern Canada.


Graduate School

  • Some of our recent graduates have gone on to pursue advanced degrees in graduate programs around the country:
  • Juris Doctor with Dual Master of Arts, Bard Center for Environmental Policy, Annandale on Hudson, NY
  • Master of Science, Geophysics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL
  • Master of Science, Sedimentary Geology, Miami University Oxford, OH
  • Master of Science, Applied Geophysics, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA
  • Master of Science, Geology, Kansas State University Manhattan, KS
  • Master of Science, Geology, Delta State University Cleveland, MS

Start a Career

  • Many of our recent graduates have obtained a variety of positions in geology and related fields:
  • Agricultural Resource Specialist Johnson City Soil & Water Conservation Dist., Franklin, IN
  • Environmental Scientist, Aerotek Indianapolis, IN
  • Environmental and Safety Oversight, Environmental Consulting, Inc. Stoughton, WI
  • Environmental Specialist, Sanitation District I, Villa Hills, KY
  • Field Chemist, Clean Harbors, Cincinnati, OH
  • Geologist, Shelby Materials, Columbus, IN
  • Geologist, Wilcox Environmental Engineering, Indianapolis, IN
  • Geologist, Environmental Resources Management, Carmel, IN
  • Geologist, Cardno ATC, Evansville, IN
  • Hydrologist, IDEM, Indianapolis, IN
  • Owner/CEO Travis Thompson Oil Corp., Mount Carmel, IL
  • Project Inspector CTL Engineering, Indianapolis, IN


The geology department also partners with an active student-lead Geology Club to offer several field trips annually during the college’s Fall, Winter, and Spring breaks. These adventures provide great opportunities to learn geology while interacting in a nonacademic setting. Travel destinations include:

Watch the video: What to Do Downtown. Hanover College (November 2022).