Can multiple overt/covert intentions produce identical EEG readings?

Can multiple overt/covert intentions produce identical EEG readings?

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

With sophisticated techniques likes ERP, it is possible to correlate certain EEG activity with certain overt/covert actions.

What I'm wondering is: is there a risk for 2+ overt/covert actions producing identical EEG activity? Meaning:

  • Perhaps when I go to open/close my right hand, I produce certain neural activity (lets just summarize this asA1); whereA1is a specific set of wave signatures
  • Perhaps when I go to open/close my left hand, I produce neural activityA2(a specific set of wave signatures that is distinctively/mathematically different thanA1)
  • Perhaps there are 10,000 other movements I could make that produced their own distinct set of wave signatures (A3-A10002), etc.
  • But perhaps when I think of sea turtles and pat my stomach at the same time, I produce the same set of waves asA2(opening and closing my left hand)

My question is: is this a concern/possibility with EEG/ERP? In other words, can multiple overt/covert intents produce identical wave activity (hence, identical EEG readings)?

To curtly answer your question: given the sheer amount of different thoughts possible (billions I guess) and the limited spatial resolution of the standard EEG as well as the restricted number of characteristic parameters to describe EEGs (frequency, amplitude, latency) it is safe to say EEG is not suitable to characterize all of the brains processes. In fact, no state-of-the-art technique can do so, as far as I can see.

Frontiers in Neuroscience

The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review.

  • Download Article
    • Download PDF
    • ReadCube
    • EPUB
    • XML (NLM)
    • Supplementary
    • EndNote
    • Reference Manager
    • Simple TEXT file
    • BibTex


    Neurobiology Exam 3

    Many sensors and neurons respond to their preferred stimuli much better when those stimuli originate from a specific region of space (retinal neurons respond best when light hits certain area of retina)

    Variation in sensor density across skin correlates with our ability to localize touch stimuli
    *Difference in density of mechanoreceptors and size of fields exist across body

    How small a spatial separation between the stimuli can be detected?
    Two point threshold: How far apart two points need to be to discriminable.
    -How big are the receptive fields?
    *localization discrimination is best on hands and face
    -upper lip: 5 millimeter
    -back: 40 mm
    Projections of mechanoreceptors axons in trunk and limbs project via A beta fibers through the dorsal root of the spinal cord
    -Touch and vibration sensitive AB fibers enter the gray matter of the spinal cord from the dorsal aspect
    Axon Branch splits: one terminates in dorsal horn of grey matter pretty close to where the fibers enter spinal cord.
    The other branch extends dorsal column fiber tract. Ascends to the caudal medulla and terminates in the dorsal column nuclei (DCN)

    Ascending projections are topographically organized (from spinal cord to the brain)
    We've got mechanorecpeotrs in lower body (leg and lower trunk), conveyed to the medial parts of the dorsal column nuclei (DCN) (in medulla)
    -Mechanosensory info from upper body/arms terminates/ is represented laterally in the DCN

    Adjacent neurons in the DCN tend have adjacent spatial receptive fields, forming somatotropic map
    *Mechanosensory info from lower body projects to medial DCN, upper body to lateral in DCN

    BUT dorsal column fiber tract carries info from most of body (neck down), except for face!
    Neck and face project to different region of medulla: Principal trigeminal nucleus of the medulla (via trigeminal nerve nV/ cranial nerve 5)
    Also somatopically organized

    So, where does info from DCN and principle trigeminal nucleus go next?
    Axons that come out of the DCN and principal trigeminal nuclei both project in same place: Both terminate in region of diencephalon called dorsal thalamus
    -Info from trunk and legs from DCN, face and neck from PTN, all converge in dorsal thalamus. Information then projects on to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)
    -info from body and face Transmitted contralaterlly (opposite side)

    Primary somatosensory cortex (s1): A thin stip of cortex that receives input from dorsal thalamus

    Main processing region for the sense of touch
    *Contains a map of the entire body surface (somatotopic map)

    Somatosensory Homunculus: Asks patients to report where they felt tingling -> drawing o little man man showed degree to which part of body is over/underrepresented in the somatosensory cortex

    Visual field: region of space that is visible trough the eyes
    Fovea: center of visual field, high density of cones (region of space where fovea aimed is disprotoptionally represented in the retina and the rest of the visual system of brain as well)
    Cones have smaller receptive field = higher/better visual acuity (make out fine details)= high spatial resolution
    Rods/peripheral retina: low resolution, higher sensitive (great in dim light)

    Ascending visual pathways:
    Retinal ganglion cells project to multiple targets in brain:
    *One of those pathways goes from RGC (retinal ganglion cells) (especially ones that express melanopsin), to suprachiamstic nucleus (kinda a binary pathway: with light, superchiasmatic nucleus inhibits pathway, in dark it causes release of melatonin from pineal gland)
    *Other pathways: Spatial information is crucial for function of two largest retinal targets: Superior Colliculus/ optic tectum (non mammalian) (important in eye movements) and Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
    *LGN goes onto project to primary visual cortex (V1), which is involved in conscious visual perception

    Lateral Geniculate Nucleus:
    Neurons of the LGN are monocular
    * Involving just one eye
    *LGN neurons that get info from left eye are located in different layer than right eye -> terminate in different layers
    *but still gets input from both eyes
    -LGN has multiple layers (all mononuclear?), like primary visual cortex (V1) (both are laminar)
    -Neurons of LGN project primarily to 4th layer of primary visual cortex (V1)
    -Each of the 6 layers of the LGN in primates carries information from only one of the eyes
    *LGN axons terminate in an eye- specific manner in V1
    -Seperation of info maintained in 4th layer
    The primary visual cortex is laminar (made up of 6 layers)
    Layer 4 V1 neurons are monocular (input from just one eye)
    -But, many of the neurons in the other layer (1-3,5-6) of V1 recieve converging input from both eyes (binocular)
    *So, other than layer 4, neurons in V1 are binocular

    The mammalian neocortex is characterized by the presence of pyrimidal neurons
    -One of the largest in cerebral cortex
    -pyramid shaped cell body and a long radial dendrite that extends towards the brain surface (layers 2,3,5,6, just a few in layer 4 of V1)

    Other type of neuron in PVC: Stellate Neurons: have a star-like shape formed by dendritic processes radiating from the cell body (layer 4 mostly packed with stellate neurons)

    -Comparing intensity and time lets us locate where sound is coming from

    Interaural level differences (ILD): Difference in sound intensity measured between two ears
    -Sound coming from directly in front of you will be equally loud between your two ears
    -Sound coming from one side will be louder on side closest to sound

    Interaural time difference (ITD): Diffence in time at which sound waves reach the 2 ears
    Arrival time: Sound coming the side arrives earlier at the ears closest to source
    -ITD and ILD and complementary (louder and earlier)

    To measure ILD and ITD, neurons must receive binaural input
    -Convergence of auditory information occurs in medulla (not in neocortex like in visual system), in two regions:

    Lateral superior olive: Measures interaural differences
    Sensitive to ILDs

    On either side of medulla
    -Right and left cochlea
    -Synapse on auditory nerve fibers
    1. Auditory nerve axons project ipsilaterally to the cochlear nuclei in the medulla
    2. LSO (lateral superior olive) receives excitatory projections from the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus and inhibitory input from the contralateral cochlear nucleus
    3. When the excitation is stronger than the contralateral inhibition, neurons in LSO will increase their firing rate
    Increase firing rate on side with louder sound
    4. LSO neurons are sensitive to ILDs: more they fire, the more ipsilateral the sound
    -The more that LSO fires, the closer to sound that side must be

    *Computation of timing differences in the MSO are very precise

    Targeted eye movements:
    Saccades: small and rapid movement of the eyes
    (Tend to be extremely swift (>350 degrees/s) and follow a straight trajector

    *Alfred Yarbus (1950s-60s)
    *How we move our eyes when we examine visual objects or scene
    *mostly our eyes rest on faces
    *Under these conditions, the eyes make saccades from one interesting spot to another

    Extraocular muscles: Six muscles that control movement of the
    eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation
    *Arranged in antagonistic pairs
    The extraocular muscles are innervated by motor neurons in the abducens (in pons) and oculomotor nuclei (in midbrain), as well as the trochlear nucleus (in lower midbrain)
    *Saccade generator regions : two regions of the brainstem that cooperate to
    generate saccadic eye movements (found in brain stem) -> Project directly to motor neurons found in three nuclei that innervate eye muscles (abducens, oculomotor and trochlear)

    Topographic projection from the retina to the superficial superior colliculus -> sends short, highly topographic projection from the superficial superior collicius to the deep saccade-eliciting layers

    4 major functions of FEF
    1 : To select a target for the next saccade (or two) when several potential targets are available (ie, when you're scanning a scene with your eyes)
    *#2 : To retain target information about planned saccades in memory (planning future events -> Ronaldo)
    #3 : To prevent saccades in some situations (aka, anti-saccades)/ (tearing your eyes away)
    Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements: an eye movement that smoothly tracks a relatively small, moving visual stimulus (not a saccade)
    *Neurons related to these smooth pursuit eye movements tend to be segregated into a special division of the frontal eye field

    Lecture 19:
    Navigating through space, animals may either memorize a habitually traveledroute(egocentric) orformanallocentric(world-centered) cognitive map of their external environment.
    e.g. Tolman's cross maze Place cells
    *Sensory systems compress sensory information by ignoring spatially and temporally invariant information.
    *The spatial receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells (excitatory center and an inhibitory surround)
    *Lateral geniculate neurons are divisible into an excitatory center and an inhibitory surround.

    * Simple cells in V1 respond best to lines and edges of a particular orientation in a specific location. Complex cells are less finicky about stimulus location. Preferred stimulus orientation varies in a pinwheel pattern across V1.
    * The inferior temporal (IT) cortex contains neurons that respond selectively to faces or other kinds of visual objects.

    Lecture 20:
    *Pyramidal neurons in the olfactory cortex receive converging inputs
    from multiple glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.
    * Natural odors activate combinations of neurons in both the olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex.
    *To perceive objects as coherent entities, their individual features must be bound together perceptually.
    *Attention generally improves performance on perceptual (or motor) tasks. It differs from behavioral arousal in being selective to particular stimuli, stimulus features, or regions of space.
    Involuntary spatial attention involves the superior colliculus Voluntary spatial attention, which involves the frontal eye fields, makes
    neurons with receptive fields in the attended area respond more strongly to their preferred stimuli (but not to other stimuli).

    Lecture 21: Wakefulness and behavioral arousal are associated with EEG
    * Locus coeruleus contains a relatively small number of neurons with widespread axonal projections that use norepinephrine as their transmitter. These neurons are activated by various arousing stimuli
    Sleep is divisible into slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep During REM sleep, the EEG is as desynchronized as it is during the waking state
    * The rhythmic activation of cortical neurons during slow-wave sleep results from intrinsic neuronal rhythms as well as looping interactions between the neocortex, the dorsal thalamus, and the thalamic reticular nucleus.
    * A small group of neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic area is more active during sleep than during waking.
    * vlPOA neurons inhibit wakefulness promoting neurons and are, in turn, inhibited by them
    * Slow-wave sleep saves energy, promotes memory consolidation, and facilitates the removal of potential toxins from the brain.
    *While you are awake vlPOA is silent, but when you are asleep vlPOA is

    Lecture 22:
    Patient H.M. had his amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of the adjacent
    cortices surgically removed (anterograde amnesia)
    * Research on monkeys and rats revealed that the perirhinal/postrhinal cortex, but not the hippocampus, is critical for object recognition memory
    * In contrast, the hippocampus is needed for remembering relationships (spatial or otherwise).
    * The hippocampus is reciprocally connected to the entorhinal cortex, which is reciprocally connected to the perirhinal/postrhinal cortex, which has reciprocal connections with many other neocortical
    * Area CA3 of the hippocampus is an autoassociative network that is capable of forming Hebbian cell assemblies and thus potential memory traces.
    Repeated reactivation of hippocampal memory traces leads to the creation of neocortical cell assemblies that can be activated without the hippocampus (systems consolidation)
    *Behavioral arousal activates the basolateral complex of the amygdala, which then enhances memories while they are formed and/or consolidated

    Overall Themes: *In auditory conditioning, rats learn to freeze in response to a tone previously paired with an aversive stimulus.
    * The underlying neural circuits run through the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala.
    *The hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala are involved in social transmission of food preference and conditioned taste aversion, respectively
    *The frontostriatal system consists of roughly parallel loops that course from the frontal lobe to the striatum and then return through the pallidum and thalamus
    * Direct vs. Indirect pathway
    * Huntington's Disease (targets indirect pathway)
    *The system also includes dopaminergic neurons in the substantia
    nigra and ventral tegmental area.* Parkinson's Disease

    55 Replies to &ldquoOrganized Gang Stalking: What You Need to Know (Re: Overt Harassment)&rdquo

    Thank you for this very informative article. I think this is a must share with others on the Targeted Individual social media sites.

    Satslights are used to indicate when I walk outside. Within minutes, I am swarmed by neighbors, paid perps. I film tags, so they swarm in areas I am not able to get to while I am out walking. This evening, they criss crossed
    on the main road as I turned onto the side street, so I could not photograph them. I am going to place my tag reader
    by the mail box tomorrow.
    Dunwoody GA.

    I am currently being gang Stalked by as many as 30 vehicles at a time anytime I leave my house. The reason seems to be extortion-based. Calls and texts encouraging additional health insurance for $2761 a month are daily offerings. If I question them about anything, they get upset and hang up. Both my vehicles have sustained thousands of dollars of damage from things being thrown or shot from stalker vehicles.

    Would you please open a line of communication with me regarding this issue?

    You are conditioned to believe these things are bigger than they are (30 vehicles at a time). Triggers have been installed in your mind.
    Organized harassment is very subtle. Human nature keeps the ball rolling. Your reactions create a ripple effect. Reflecting on the unnatural seeming events
    is more likely causing overstimulation. Most of the blank spaces in recall are filled with our own racing thoughts.
    It makes more sense than believing this is a 24 hour a day operation. A few key people keep it going: The stalker
    the stalkers minions, and you. You create most of the chaos by linking the perpetrators pre planted ideas in your head with reality.
    An Illusion is created that you are receiving much more attention than you actually are. Make your reality solid NOW. When you accept
    this is the technique and it escalates: You can learn to deal with it. Stop trying to make sense of it.
    The point is it doesn’t make sense, and creates a paradox. This mental paradox is meant to do damage. Ignore it, even when it’s amazingly coincidental.

    Some of this is not subtle at all. Do not let people gaslight you into believing you are the problem. After being an activist on the issue of money in politics, I experienced breaking and entering at my home, theft, vandalism inside my house, constant vandalism to my car and overt, obnoxious morons literally driving up to me and making joking comments about the vandalism, etc. There is no question that those engaging in organized harassment are criminals, regardless of whether or not they hide behind “legitimate” agencies or excuses for their behavior. They’re break the law.

    The plain fact is: this is criminal behavior. Stalking, harassment, threatening and personal endangerment are illegal. Every state has a law against harassment and stalking. Every state has laws against breaking and entering, vandalism and theft. Apparently, the criminals are supported by a rogue element in DHS DHS vehicles have participated in this on occasion. I still find it hard to believe a US agency that calls itself legitimate would work with petty criminals, vandals and idiots to terrorize other US citizens. However, this appears to be the level of corrupt idiocy going on now in the US.

    Just remember those sponsoring the harassment wish to disrupt our society strictly for their own gain. It is the same as any mafia. It’s done for political and financial reasons. Criminals in power hire people who suffer from group delusion created by deeply-entrenched Stockholm Syndrome. Their own weaknesses, addictions, grandiosity and anger management issues have been exploited so that they think it is OK to attack citizens of their own country.

    There are certain types of people who participate in this. They are shallow, greedy and egotistical, but pretend they have a “higher cause” (religion, military or “state security,” etc.) They are violating the US constitution but think their own ego problems and feelings are more important than the law. People who participate in this believe other US citizens are inherently bad. However, they do not examine their own motivations at all. They are cynical and think they must defeat others — because this is the only way to get ahead. Some want to feel important. Some are just so frightened they believe in blind obedience to the corrupt. They are not morally strong enough to question criminal behavior.

    This phenomenon has reared its head throughout history. These sort of people supported the crucifixion of Jesus.

    I’ve been gang stalked for years and in several of the ways mentioned above. The main way is by sleep deprivation by projecting noises into my room while I sleep. This angry neighbor can see when I wake up. I have read that cameras and microphones are not necessary, and this can be done by ultrasound. Is the ordinary citizen able to get this equipment on his own, or might the police be helping him? Police have tried to say I’m mentally unstable. I have had electronic sweeps done, and nothing showed up. I believe local groups of targets should group together. I would like to start a group in Lafayette, la. I can be reached at the email [email protected]

    As a targeted individual any advice to counteract and end this. I’ve contacted federal trade commission cause they hack into every phone and identity theft

    I have the same issue with the phones , but also the internet. After i moved in with my Uncle to try and curb the activity by hoping that having people around would help calm them down a little. It worked for a few months but the stalkers found a cheep residence that put them within eye sight of my uncle’s house. Also paint gun distance away. When I say paint ball distance i mean just that. Glycerin paint balls can be frozen so they disintegrate on contact. So in theory you could put anything into a paint ball aim it at something or someone, lets say you put scabies (mites) into the paint ball and hit your target with a paint gun that has an adjustable force. Hitting your target with only the force of a blow gun. But the ball disintegrates leaving behind scabies. and this is done to the target day after day, after day, after day.
    They must be a way to organize a group to so that we might live in better situations. Because no one deserves to live like this

    If you recieve please contact me. I am a TI as well. I want to communicate with other TI’s for support.

    Dr Karlstrom,
    I’ve been following the Targeted Massachusetts show on RBN, and wanted to send you a copy of the letter I sent him, detailing some problems with his narrative.
    Mr Allen,
    I’ve been listening to your show long enough to hear some major problems with your spiel and wanted to send you some feedback. First off, as a victim of a long running, nationwide gang stalking network, that involves a variety of characters, I find your lack of information actually providing a form of cover for the criminals that are committing these various state felonies, violations of federal statutes, civil rights and RICO organized crime laws. The biggest problems are the distinctions you fail to make between the various types of victims, the various types of stalkers, and the various types of motives. The gang stalking phenomenon, that has exploded with the advent of the internet and smartphones, is a very serious problem and needs to be handled by professionals, and your simply out of your league and not qualified. The blunders your making are not helping the situation.

    There are generally three different types of stalking phenomenon going on in the US. 1-Amateur, 2-Professional, and 3-People with mental illnesses making up the whole thing.
    As we are all aware, stalking is a common occurance for people targeted for various personal related reasons. A jilted lover, unfaithful spouse, or work related problems as examples. These types of amateur stalkings are personal, local, and best handled by local law enforcement. The second type of stalking would be professional individuals targeted by professional stalkers for a variety of reasons, ie. persons involved in class action lawsuits, witnesses in legal cases, whistle-blowers, journalists, attorneys and other professionals targeted because of the work they do. It is important for you to point this out. Then there are the intelligence agency and military personnel or “spooks” that are targeted by other spooks, which would be well outside your purvey, and could only be handled by the federal government. Then there are the people like me, a trained analyst, working independently, and dealing with controversial issues, that are targeted for political and/or religious reasons. I’ve discovered the hard way that, in the age of the internet and smartphones, being doxxed and gang stalked can be manipulated in a variety of ways, go viral online, and entail a seemingly endless rogue of psychopaths, with each group believing its own set of lies about their intended targets. As I’ve told you before, my case began in Minneapolis in 2010, followed me to Eugene, Oregon and has followed me still to Virginia. I am being specifically targeted because I’ve used my professional skill sets to attack what I see to be massive foreign (Israeli) manipulations of our government, media and other major institutions. I am not involved with any organizations, have never done or suggested anything illegal, and have no ulterior motives than the preservation of our soldier-won US Constitution and Bill of Rights. And finally, the third type of stalking victim would be the unfortunate mentally ill persons suffering a paranoid personality or schizophrenic disorder that are suffering delusions, such as the uneducated woman that calls into your show from time to time and is in obvious need of psychiatric help. I find it appalling that you engage this woman as if her nonsensical complaints are founded in reality. She should be counseled off air and not allowed to make your show look like it’s an attraction for the uneducated mentally-ill.

    To reiterate, there are three groupings of stalking phenomenon 1-Amateur (personal reasons), 2-Professional (professionals like journalists, lawyers, witnesses in legal cases, CIA type spies, political activists, etc who are targeted by other professionals), and 3-those with mental illness.

    It is essential that you ask victims why they think they are being targeted, what they think they did to get targeted and who they think the perpetrators are. Making the distinctions between the various types of stalking and various types of victims is ESSENTIAL in shedding more light on what is going on. Right now, your sloppy narrative is aiding and abetting these criminals and is not helping this situation one bit.

    Again, if your really sincere in fighting the gang stalking culture occurring across the US, you will clean up your act, and start by sorting out all these distinctions.

    My name is Henry McGuinn, my Dad Roger McGuinn is the lead singer of the Byrds.

    I am the Baby on the inside Byrds album cover called “Untitled”.

    For over 20 years I have been Gang Stalked, Electronically Harassed,
    and, threatened with “Rape & Torture” by Gangs from the Philippines (who won’t quit calling me “Less Than Zero”) and other Narcotic
    influenced Gang Bangers at the U of A and elsewhere besides Tucson, at this address and area:

    Just figured out I have been stalked over 20 years…even by drones…omg
    I googled target marketing and than targeted individuals and from there found the real thing….gangstalking
    Just not sure what to do….would like to speak with local victims but reading about
    The victims stories on line is very therapeutic. Help.

    I am currently being gang stalked. It started while I was living in Denver Colorado. I moved back to Louisiana and staying a good bit with a friend in Mississippi. The town in Mississippi is where I grew up and graduated high school. I know a lot of the people due to the town being small. I have lost relationships with all my kids. People don’t act like normal people. The thing about being in a small town is it’s easy to pick the gang stalkers and believe it or not it’s like the whole town. Tracking me, well I think it’s the drones flying in the sky outside the house which is way out in the country from town. I can’t see them in the day time but at night there so visible. I am at the point where I don’t trust anyone. Not family , not friends, or anyone I thought I could trust back in my home town. My son is a free mason. For some reason I believe he’s behind some of this torture tactics. My father, which is my best friend says things don’t make sense or leads me to believe that he was contacted and knows something. When I ask him was he contacted he says NO. One of my sisters is experiencing the same exact tactics. She lives in Alabama. She noticed it about a year before I noticed the gang stalking. I thought she was nuts. I now know she’s right on point.
    I could go on and on talking about this situation but I will stop here.

    Gang stalking victim here. I can’t go through a day without being accused of being a Nazi, being psychopathic, pedophilia, and being ”fou” or crazy. Whether I stay home or go out for a few minutes. I get stared at for no reason. Cars speed by me on the street. Being accused of horrible things and mocked and ridiculed in public in my daily activities. I get electronically harrassed at home by a repetitive series of accusations on a sound system in the apartment upstairs, and the person who lives there blasts loud chatter and content with loud sound effects on a set of speakers with loud bass set on the floor. Being surrounded for no apparent reason by extremely shifty people acting repulsively around me, and nobody noticing. I also get treated with rudeness by everyone I meet, and I’m socially isolated. I’ve had the sense of being gang stalked for a year, but I suspect it’s been going on longer, since I have a tendency to be a depressed and susceptible individual, in addition to being socially isolated. That leads me to believe that the gang stalking tactics used on me may have been subtle and had complete effectiveness on me psychologically regardless. I suppose at this point, maintaining a clear head in a gladiator, fight to the finish kind of way is the only and best defense for me. And giving it time. Not smoking more than two cigarettes a day so I don’t come down with cancer eventually, from the stress and all the useless fidgeting around it causes me to do. Making one friend, perhaps.

    I’m a victim. I was marked at age 19. I entered school 2 years late as a kid because of a learning disability.
    At age 19 I was in the 10th grade. We moved to a new state. And a girl I met at my school really liked me.
    I was new and didn’t know anybody. My parents went out of town one weekend and my girlfriend invited
    A whole bunch of people for a party. Long story short I got marked by the police. A 19yr old dating a 17yr old.
    Despite her denials that we were not sexual I still got marked and flagged. instead of court action I’ve been
    Spied and and covertly harassed. They played skits with doppelgängers and tried to entrap me. They have
    Done a lot of things to me over the years to where I’m hyper aware. I know for a fact that it is the police.
    I plan on writing a book. The best thing that has gotten me thru this is regular prayer. I kept praying to
    Father God in the name of Jesus. And I’ve had super natural break throughout. And he has acted covertly
    Pushed Back at my tormentors!

    Some of the big shots in charge of all this and have plaid a part in actually killing people together as a group are the following names : James Clark, Donavan Belcher, Jerry Scott jr, Corey Scott, Bart Burns, Nataila Mease, R. Belcher, Brandon White, Jon Burd, Shenita Franklen, Cory Almdol, Matthew Disbro, Lindsay Clancy, Lauren Scott, Laura Merez, Greg Yeo, JustinYeo, Kevin Snyder and there is more working for The City of Glendale Policeb Dep. Also City of Phoenix Police Dep. Not mentioning any names. Private local prostitution “pimps” and many employed in state mental wards .

    I wrote an original short story, entitled “The Developer.” It was about a male who was taking a sabbatical from his studies, worked in a photo finishing shop and became obsessed with a woman.

    My “friend,” Nick Stahl (an infiltrator) told me that I should show this story to a retired CBC professional, named Don Cullen. Don Cullen just happened to join a conversation club that I frequented. Don took this short story from me, along with another one. He was supposedly going to provide some kind of commentary. Instead, he asked me if he could photocopy the story. I knew that he had already copied it. I said that I did not give permission.

    Nick Stahl took me to see a feature film, some five years after I had shown my story to Don Cullen. This film was “One Hour Photo.” It used most of the underlying ideas in my short story. It took me some time to piece together how my ideas had been stollen. My story was not sinister, but many aspects were utilized, very obviously.

    Other of my ideas have also appeared in feature films.

    I no longer write. I had a novel, 3/4 complete. Perpetrators mixed up chapters and stole pages out of it. Very likely, parts of it have also been stollen.

    My relatives are the Devor family, the Winemaker family–and some of the Winemakers have changed their name to Warner.

    An acquaintance said that having your work plagiarized is like having an arm ripped off.

    I was taken to a medical facility and a swastika was cut right into the skin of my upper left arm, when I was two years old. I do not think that the human traffickers who put me into the MKULTRA program thought that I would realize, at age four, turning five years of age, what the significance was of this symbol, when I examined the scar.

    Nick Stahl has a brother named Richard Stahl, who is a researcher at the Sick
    Children’s Hospital, in Toronto. I discovered that I had been in close contact with five persons, who worked at this hospital.

    You cannot make up this stuff.

    I am locked out of my email.

    Sorry to hear about this. This same thing happened to me and to a friend of mine. My friend was plagiarized by a screenwriting professor at the School of Visual Arts in NYC. He was a known Hollywood writer. He plagiarized scenes from her script, which then showed up in a Hollywood film. (For a little while, I studied film a long time ago) The people who do this have no ethics and let other people do the work for them, then steal their work. I guess they are concerned with getting attention in any way possible. It is what the military would call “stolen honor.”

    P.S. I have endured all of the above psychological and physical tortures, for the duration of my life, especially, in recent decades.

    The worst experiences were stalking 24/7 with electronic assaults that caused bursts of blood, every five minutes, for a period of two weeks. This is literally what occurred and there were three such two-week periods. By this time, I realized that I could not report any of this or mention it to anyone. I had read some information about “organized stalking.” By the last such ambush period, I remembered having the swastika scar, which I had forgotten –deliberately, at age six or seven.

    My father and two of my brothers had suffered highly suspicious, highly premature deaths. Before this, there is evidence that they had been trafficked for medical research, by relatives. I have a first cousin who is a biology professor at Hebrew University, in Jerusalem. I have a first cousin who is an oncologist in a Toronto hospital, married to a Toronto oncologist.

    My younger brother had been subjected to major surgery at birth. Our doctor was Dr. Sand. My brother was treated for serious allergies, some fifty such allergies, which no other member of my family of origin or extended family — a huge family –had. I found out recently that we have relatives named Sandler. I looked up “Sandler,” and an Allergy hospital came up.

    My older brother was named after the St. Michael’s hospital in Toronto. The Director of that hospital, Mary McConnville, married to a Fred Marshman, just happened to live next door to me when I began my professional career. She just happened to utilize my services. She was the Director of the Catholic School Board, as well. I realized that if Luciferians were in need of children –where would they look?

    My “friend” Helen Anderson (father chief architect of the CN tower in Toronto) obtained CSIS qualifications at age 18 or 19. I thought nothing of this at the time. She may very well have had a part in luring my older brother to Vancouver and getting him to take some casual work. My brother was set up in his workplace, with false accusations and transported to a hospital in Penetang. Nick Stahl urged me to visit my brother there and I went all the way up there. I did not have any inkling at the time that this hospital treats dangerous, violent criminals who are not criminally responsible. I only found out about this fact, recently.

    My brother’s high school friends had the same surnames as Doctors at this Penetang hospital, who were convicted of torturing patients. Why was my brother –a mild mannered, gifted person, socially popular and multifaceted –taken to this hospital? They obviously wished to utilize criminals to diagnose him with a mental illness, which he did not have. They then transported him to Toronto. He became a test subject for psychiatric drugs, before his hugely premature death, one week after my father’s (apparently poisoning) death.

    I knew nothing of my extended “family” growing up. You could say that I had been locked in a closet, shackled to a wall, gagged and blindfolded for the first twelve years of my life. This is not physically exact, but it is close as I can get, without going into endless detail. I did not know that I had 15 aunts and uncles and some 20-30 first cousins.

    And never underestimate the effects of trauma, in keeping a victim from quickly figuring out who and why he or she is being tortured with murderous intent.

    I am locked out of my email.

    My first cousin sends her “Pink” nurse to the building where I live and she visits Donnell Enns, who does not appear to live in my building, but rather, seems to be on surveillance duty. She has just arrived, in fact. I have rarely seen my cousin and it seems likely that the only reason for any contact was so that she could pretend to have “an insurable interest” in me.

    I think that my relatives would like to end my life and being medical experts, would like it to appear to be a natural death.

    A Brittany Hildebrandt “lived” in my building, several years ago and would be present at night. I would be heated every night in my lower legs. It appeared that this was being done so that I would develop skin cancer. The skin began to have a mottled appearance. However, when Brittany “moved out,” it regained its normal colouration, over time.

    Very recently, all of my clothing was professionally altered ie stollen out of my home, then professionally resign. I found that I had only almost no garments–under, regular, over items– that I could possibly wear. The shoulder joints of my garments had been reduced drastically, so that I could not even get into many clothes, without injuring my shoulder joints. All items seem to work together, to cut off my blood circulation.

    There is much evidence in my home that my floors have been vandalized and this was done over a decade. I did contact the police, when it first became very obvious that a small portion was being scratched up and treated with caustic solvent, daily. However, the police who came informed me, with no investigation, that my landlord was not responsible for the damage and threatened me. So, I did not seek any police support after that.

    I have been heated all night, every night, for the last year. It causes me to be dehydrated, although I try to rehydrate. They forcibly wake me many times. Also, their is chemical exposure, which causes hypoglycaemia and malaise. I think that they would like to force me to have diabetes. Also, there has been evidence of attempts to compromise my bones and joints, so that I can have the medical specialty of my cousin’s husband. Supposedly, my first cousin, David Devor died recently of this illness. However, I suspect that he did not die, but committed life insurance fraud. He remarried a woman who had six or more children, late in his life. This would have given a good excuse for him to take out large policies, since his wife was much younger.

    If this site is not controlled opposition, can you explain why it is allowed to make negative comments about globalists and is not taken down?

    I do not know whether any Luciferians would even care that a family has been serially tortured, terrorized and murdered. They may find it amusing, as many seem to lack the most basic morality.

    I am locked out of my email.

    my name is ko chen huang, my comment already erased by them..because they have had been tracing on-line, monitoring my cellphone, computer and other activities on-line. Good People do not pretend to be bad, but bad people often pretend to be good. We are not criminals, they are psychopaths, sociopaths, manipulative, sick,pathological mental disorders and anti-social behaviours. Targets experience the following:
    1-total invasion of privacy: using cctv to spying on you, recording hidden audios and videos in your home. it is one the tecnique it is called baiting for entertrainment…….After this, selking all the information to everyone.My mom’s ipad has been disabled while bluetooth is turn on, it is called BIAS ( bluetooth impersonnel attack). I am a targeted individual as t.i’s by gang stalking and eletronic harassmentb at least almost 10 years when, I was living in Brazil. When I moved to Taiwan th same protocol contitnuing harassing, slander deceving also disguise your personnel, your life even your stuffs. It happened too much eventsbin my life. The t.i’s called accidents very strange events that I can not explain why, what, when, who, where and how. It is because, if I started to speak to another person, they hink you must be crazy, dwlusionl, paranoid and getting nuts. Everrthing is reality, I am not creating or inventing something. The main goal is to make miney, google will pay to you to stalk, spying on you, using camera, taking pictures of you, total invasion of your privacy. The better advice is to turn off all your devices, specially your cellphone. Be aware, be very careful, horrinle situation with who you are talking, meting with who and so on…….It is so subtlethat what you are doinh, they wnat to know everything. If you download apps like skype, what’s app, amazon, telegram, facebook, instagram, messenger this apps it is spying, checking on you….. It is very exausting, very tiring…. you can not do nothing about it….. They know what they are doing, how it is affecting your mood, emotions and feelings ended up jobless, no income to pay your rent, so become homeless. Many of them, committed suicide there is no way out or you insttutionalization psyche yards. You don’t have choice, do i have choice. ). Once I was institutionalization in psyche yards for 14 fourteen days…..Again in another country……..GOD BLESS ALL OF US.

    Thank you so much for adding this resource on the web up u til lately I’ve avoided doing any research that may tip my hand but you’ve explain every thing I’ve experienced. The street theatre has been most interesting almost comical, At times. I was talking to my therapist TG I’ve known him before this stuff started but shortly after leaving his office where I lamented about the high pitched night noise, As if on que on a bicycle with a large ole fashioned Boom box tide to its frame A song from the 70,s blasting “Can’t stop the music it an,t gonna ever stop. this thug was right there on the street in-front of my carport I hadn’t even gotten to my front door, Go s around twice with this sound blasting then disappears. I’ve come to accept I’m out numbered and I have no privacy I use to feel quilty like I must of done something to deserve this but I don’t anymore. Just sad about relationships destroyed
    I hired a PI who did nothing but take my money any suggestions?

    I don’t even know where to begin! It started with my husband, who is a dangerous narcissist & in a federal prison. How many times do I have to fight death. Almost everything this article said, I know it well. My husband attempted to put me six feet under, but he never was able to go through with it. Once he was taken out of our house, my family told me a horrid lie, that the system was looking at me as an accessory. That the system was badgering our granddaughters to see if I were an accessory or not. I almost died, at this time, because I couldn’t handle what my husband did. I was living with my daughter & her husband & without my husband around, it was a nightmare. I lived in fear, for a few years & I was told their was malicious slander going on. There was financial abuse going on. My son-in-law is a chemist & it turns out he was drugging me, because what he was doing. He was a fraudulent POA, he came into my room, while I was sleeping. He threw so much away, including a book I finished writing & about to be published. Lost. I was waking up with a body full of bruises & had no memory of it. My daughter was scared that she would be blamed for it. I told her “Don’t worry about it, I know, you wouldn’t do anything like this. The way I felt on top of it, I would not talk about until much later. They lied about being my medical POA & were extremely bossy. They threatened me with a home, for no reason. A specialist put a stop to that. Then, they were getting caught financially abusing me. They made me move & abandoned me. The malicious slander continues with the building manager & quite a few tenants are slandering my name. I feel like a freak show. The manager has put me in danger so many times. I have been broken into & even drugged, my medications were stolen. Finally, after a year of this, the lock was changed. There was plenty of entering, when I wasn’t home & no emergency. I have been trashed so many times, I told the manager, it will be going slow, because I have to find important papers. There is a case of financial abuse & I almost was evicted. She took pictures of my apt. without any permission. I was in a hospital after a heart attack. I had a minor fire that didn’t make sense. Small fire & water doesn’t go up in flames & of course, they tried to blame me for the fire. Small fires do not burn like the entire building was going up. The smoke was being fed & too much. Cloudy water, the microwave stopped working & I still have an apt. full of haze way before the fire. The fire marshal said “The reason for the fire was that I fell a sleep.” Another lie. I come home after the heart attack, find my apt a bigger mess & scissors in my bed. While I was gone, people were in & out of my apt, including my daughter. I told the manager not to speak to my family & give them information & she didn’t listen. She called up a private investigator who has 6 police records without my permission. I ended up getting 302 for 2 & 1/2 weeks against the law. No, judge involvement. Almost was 302 again, trying to report my husband’s abuse with proof. Can’t even walk into a hospital & feel safe. Was attacked by 4 men & 302ed again. Financial abuse. How do you lose your acct.? I have been living a life of Hell. One abuser after another & I’m the one treated like the criminal. At least, I know what. Right now, there is a case almost completed for financial abuse. The FTC called it a mess. The whole time I’m trying to get this case done, the manager was harassing me. They also tried to take a full rent out of a close acct with proof, but she will never admit it. She tried to frame me for the fire, but I told the insurance company exactly what happened & a few days later they closed the case. I wrote a bad review towards her & a few days later I get a retaliatory letter from her with a threatening note. I’m so agoraphobic, even though I left my husband, I won’t date & I isolate. I totally lost my trust! I have to see a neurologist & a cardiologist & I wonder how am I going to do this?

    I am a gang stalked victim in Louisiana. My formal supervisor at Louisiana State University made me a Target Individual.

    For many reasons, I am fairly certain that I was sold to the MKULTRA program. When I was two years old, my biological mother, Rose Devor took me to a medical facility, where a professional made a number of small cuts into the skin of my upper left arm. When I was four years old, just turning five, I pulled the skin forward one day and looked carefully at the scar. I realized that it was a perfectly formed swastika. I knew from TV about the Nazi terminal experiments. I still remember the very rapid process by which I realized that I had been taken to be utilized for research. I wondered if I had been selected for special qualities. However, I was terrified and immediately thought of a suicide plan, so that I could protect myself from this degradation and torture. I could go to Keele St., wait for a large box truck, race out in front of it and throw myself under the wheels. However, I had a very strong desire to live. So, instead, I decided to bury the knowledge of this symbol. Only in 2012, did I begin to think about it again, when I was being physically tortured in a relentless and terrifying manner.

    There is evidence that my extended family intended to accept payment for the MKULTRA program, while completely blocking off any possibility for me to advance in any way. I might as well have been locked in a closet, gagged, bound and blindfolded, watching my formative years waste away. When a teacher found out that my family name had been Winemaker and had been changed, we moved away from a three story home near Keele St. School, to a dumpy apartment building, near the Humber River. It seems fairly clear that I was supposed to have an “accident” and drown in the river. That way, my relatives could keep the MKULTRA money and obtain life insurance money on my life.

    I was spared this fate, because the Pierre Trudeau regime came into office and they were much more astute than the Pearson regime. They immediately realized why I was not demonstrating my academic abilities. They moved us to a good neighbourhood and I was able to complete two university degrees and obtain employment in a rewarding and honourable profession. However, having been subjugated to deprivation and many forms of abuse, in the most unimaginable way, from early childhood, I was not even capable of knowing or articulating very basic needs.

    I was not able to protect my father and my two brothers, who had sudden, highly suspicious highly premature deaths. There is much circumstantial evidence that extended family were interested in obtaining life insurance cash and did not care who these remarkable persons were, or what they could have achieved. My younger brother had studied aerospace engineering in an elite program, then moved to Santa Barbara, California, where he lived and worked. I hope some day to be able to expose the fact that relatives put him on some watchlist and had him hunted down like an animal and murdered in cold blood. I think that they also sold his organs for profit. He was cremated by my biological mother and she only told me after the fact.

    I was stalked and assaulted physically around the clock in Toronto. This took place during three separate periods. Each lasted for two weeks. The third took place in 2012. By then, I was well aware that I could not mention this to anyone or seek assistance of any kind. I was literally kept awake for the entire duration. I was assaulted and I had to mop up a burst of blood every five minutes –literally. I ran from my home to the streets, to parks, to cafes and back again. I was using up twelve rolls of paper towels daily, to soak up the blood. (We know that some persons hire Mossad agents to silence victims. I actually had a brief “romantic relationship” with a male, who had worked for Mossad, in early adulthood. His father was a professor of medicine at Hebrew University. I did not know that I had a first cousin, from the Devor family, who was a biology professor at Hebrew university. At the time, I knew almost nothing about my relatives. It seems unlikely that this early encounter was a coincidence.)

    I do not know whether these programs will ever be exposed. I wonder whether any persons in the upper sector of society possess the decency to look into the matter of serial torture and murder of my family of origin. It is possible that I will survive the horrors of my enslavement and be able to accomplish other work of importance. However, it is very difficult to muster that quality of hope.

    Interestingly, I found out very recently that I may have a serious physical condition, inherited from Viking ancestors. Persons with this condition build up too much iron in their blood. So, ironically, my being bled in the streets, by gang stalkers may have fortified me and made it possible for me to survive the relentless physical abuse.

    My cousin’s program is called “PYNK.” Her husband’s specialty is a form of blood cancer.

    My cousin, who runs the PYNK program, had her family name changed, as well. I speculate that it occurred at the time that my teacher found out that my family name had been changed to a very common WASP name. This would make my brothers and me sitting ducks. My extended family would be able to prey on us. Since we were always kept away from the small community of our ancestry, no one would ever realize the links and come to our aid.

    These elite families “transgender” their children. So, a person’s “mother” could be the father, presenting as a female. It seems more complicated, because they can transgender in utero. So, a person, conceived as a male can have a female reproductive system and be raised as a female. I think that this has occurred with a little prodigy child, named Alma Deutcher. This person thinks that he? she? is a girl.

    My cousin, who runs the PYNK program, had her family name changed, as well. I speculate that it occurred at the time that my teacher found out that my family name had been changed to a very common WASP name. This would make my brothers and me sitting ducks. My extended family would be able to prey on us. Since we were always kept away from the small community of our ancestry, no one would ever realize the links and come to our aid.

    These elite families “transgender” their children. So, a person’s “mother” could be the father, presenting as a female. It seems more complicated, because they can transgender in utero. So, a person, conceived as a male can have a female reproductive system and be raised as a female. I think that this has occurred with a little prodigy child, named Alma Deutcher. This person thinks that he? she? is a girl.

    I am utilizing a logical pen name, above.


    Yes this is happening to me definitely. They try to leave you medically untreated. But God I just pray for continued health and healing from inside out. With or without doctors.

    All these scenarios sound alike. The stalkers have the upper hand and we have no one on our side to help stop this illegal activity. There must be a way that we can help ourselves organize and control the pain and anguish.


    Gangstalking abuse and chest hurting on left side. Just had heart catch. So, I that shouldn’t be it. I also had mri, pet and ct scans. So I’m curious why my chest is hurting on left side. These idiots abuse me and keep my heart rate up all day. While I believe they left a cloth on my l side, and a possible blockacke. I heard they were blocking black. Which means labs are getting proper results so we can get proper treatment.

    Ban the lot of it repect freedom happiness physically mentally spiritually and emotionally heal

    Gangstalking victim here. Several years now. Posting on Nov. 9th 2020

    I just became aware that I had become a victim of organized stalking in February of 2020, shortly after successfully completing grad school. I really need to conversate with other targeted individuals. The powers that be, have managed to socially isolate me from the people who live within my community. As TI’s, we can create our own community. If you are interested please reach me at [email protected]

    totally gang stalked on the US border. i was drugged w jimmson weed as well and halluincinated all w the hopes of robbing me perhaps even killing me. be careful of mental health professionals. having been in in this field i can truly say it only creates a constant feedback loop of constant self doubt and question that can only tell u that u are the problem. No! If you got to this fucking page its because there is an absolute reason to be fearful and absolutely probable in todays day in age that those greedy ass bastards have organized and harnessed their knowledge and interest to get whats yours… fucking corporations do it all day everyday! they are just taxed and not even! so good for u for figuring it out! now dispense w an action plan soldier cuz time is limited!

    First of all I would like to thank you for putting up this website.
    As a victim of gang stocking for the past 35-40 years, I can tell you that it has taken me many years for me to actually become aware of this happening to me. But as of 2008 through today (Dec. 2020) it seems like a lightning heating me, every day/month/year, my mind has become more receptive to my surroundings and I started realizing that all that was happening to me was real, I started seeing the same people, the same cars, and realizing that my computer and cell phone were hacked, then I started realizing that my apartments had also been compromised. In the summer of 2000 while working and living in Boston, I became very ill and was wrongfully diagnosed by Mass General Hospital, they said that it was my pancreas, but since I was a Senior Accountant for a prestigious Architectural Firm, my CEO told my boss the Controller and the CEO made arrangements with his doctor at Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital who has the #1 Pancreatitis Center in America and they are the one’s that said Mass General Hospital had misdiagnosed me and that it had been good for me not to allow them to do surgery on my, because they were ready to take me in for surgery, if I would have allowed them, I would probably not be here to tell my story. After a year or so, is when I began to hear my stockers and a little after that I was able to fully communicate with them through my mind. I believe they use equipments/computers to read my mind and then they answer back and that’s how the dialog started, the women and men (my stickers) are not of any high level of intelligence, as a matter of fact they are a bunch of El Salvadorian’s, but nevertheless with script dialogue. I believe that while in Boston I was injected with some kind of nano technology or had a chip installed in me, in one of my few procedures I had done and that they had to put me under anesthesia and all 3 procedures were done at Mass General Hospital. I was raised in Los Angeles and that is where I did all of my school, including a bachelor’s degree at the University of Southern California, then through one of my job’s, I given the opportunity to relocate to Boston where I stayed for 20 years, after 2008 and while in Boston I relocated four times and my stocker’s continued to follow me and moving into the homes around me and always in the same pattern as to keep surrounded. All of the techniques that you have talked about, they have been implemented on me. The trying to defame me, surveillance equipment, noise making both electronic and physcical, as the people living next door to me making lots of noises at all hours of the day/night, the following me everywhere I go and the theft and damaging of my cars. Three years ago I moved to the farthest northern part of Maine, 20 miles from the Quebec/Canadian border, but the same people followed me there and since it was a very small town, they could not hide, but had the local police on their side, they tried to incriminate me, but they couldn’t and then I located to Phoenix Arizona to live with my best friends, but they followed me here and then I become aware that they actually already had my best friend under their watch also. I have relocated three times in the past two year seven months I have been here in Phoenix. But at my present location we had a new roommate moving in and after talking to this man from Alaska, we were both surprise to learn of each other’s experience with gang stocking and he is the one that made me aware of the name Group/gang Stocking) and since two months ago, I have started doing all kinds of research on this and shock to know that it was not just happening to me to also to others, I now feel a little relief to find that there are individuals and places like this website that are trying to educate the whole in this nasty age and evil tactics that have been put in place just to break people down. As for the knowledge that I want to convey to everyone is that the technology is already here and I know that I have been selected as a free guinea pig, to test their mind reading technics. I am aware that the ultimate ungodly abuse is to be able to know what anybody is thinking as a way of controlling the masses, I know that I am strong minded and that this attack on me will only go so far, but I continue to shield my thoughts and to use ear buds as to interrup the never ending chattering of this individuals, no I don’t hear voices, I hear my perpetrators talking among themselves and saying what I am thinking at the precise moment of my thought, they can also ready my body functions so they know if I have a headache or if I am cold or hot or if something hurts, like any kind of pain, they also know my bodely functions. I have also found that they are able to know what I am dreaming. All of this things I have learn from them, only because they make lots of comments about everything all day long, I also know that they voice it all as to irritate me and to mock me at the same time. But all this I tell you, because I want you to know what is happening to me and what it will be used on the masses, soon my comments will be believed and the knowledge of this technology and abuse will be totally exposed. I feel blessed that I have been string minded to endured all of this things, now I walk with pistol everywhere I go and this group of individuals know that they better be careful with me, after all of the mental abuse, I know that it has only made me stronger and that I continue to look great for my age and that I continue to be an intellectual, I have a great personality and find that most people perceive as a great and educated, friendly individual. I want to tell you Thank you for letting me post my story and thank you for reading it. Please stay aware of your surroundings and always be aware of who you are, as not to allow any one to dictate what you are, also stay positive and don’t give into any kind of mind alterations, believe in what’s real and what is not. Good luck.

    Hi Guillermo,
    I was being stalked for six months before I learned something was going wrong. I reside in New Castle, Delaware and my home is under constant surveillance. Cars pull up and use devices to look through my windows upstairs and downstairs to see where I am. Homes that surround my house also have devices aimed at my home. They try to see when we wake up and when we sleep. They also spy while we in the bathroom, but I have taken measures to block them. We also have air surveillance (helicopters) that fly around to attempt to see my whereabouts. This past May, the stalkers hacked our computers and all devices by breaking through our home router. They open our packages and then reseal the packages as if we would not notice, and our mail is often tampered with. I am attempting to reach out to other targeted individuals to stay informed and increase support and awareness. Please reach out to me if you are interested @ [email protected]

    Thank you for sharing your story.

    Thank you for all of your information and for you website.

    Thank you. I live in Melbourne, Australia and have been a victim of ongoing harassment for over seven long years now. Scientology, a criminal cult is believed to be behind this harassment, with the help of the State. A campaign of threats, noise harassment, vehicular surveillance and constant bombardment with stimulus.
    The harassment is aimed at destroying my life at every level possible including Career, finances, social life and mental health. The state sponsored campaign is severe in its approach, violent, unforgiving and brutal. What do they want? They want us to join Scientology Staff. The entire system is designed for them. There seems to be no escape. We are waiting to leave the country. Hopeful that things change with the change of country.
    All the above mentioned tactics have been tried on us. Every single one, in fact I should be qualified to write a book on Gang Stalking and Harassment orchestrated by Cults. Would be a best seller.

    While I can Relate to many of the problems the TID have, my take is the issue is money. Hacking into a persons private life is Hacking into bank accounts and any monies the individual has.That How can you be credible if you Have been discredited people you know and the institutions you have dealt agree with the stalkers? By breaking down the individuals mind and ability to think rationally, how easy would it be to manipulate a persons finances? If this type of activity were targeted to the aged, the Immigrants or those alone and helpless, how much money could be reaped? Millions! There may be issues of hate, pure malicious or chance. Where’s the payoff. Why all the trouble if it’s not for a gain of some sort. If people are paid to participate in this stalking scene, where does the money come from? It’s not credible to me that a centralized agency of our Government would be doing this. If it were a antagonist country against us that would be more credible to me.

    Thank you for this information. All of this is happening to me. I’ve tried suicide before, everyday now I think of doing it again. How ever if I do ill not go out alone. My life is ruined and the last family member I have thinks I’m nuts. I don’t guess theirs any relief in site. I’m just writing about everything and body and intel that I can gather cause I know my end is near. So I guess I’m going to just half to buy more amo. Fuck you bunch of pussyfied gangstalking bitches. I’ll not go out alone! I would love some help but this looks like my only alternative.

    I am being gang stalked in West Virgina. I have been for over 3 years now. I do not know what exactly that the people want from me, but I have even tried to move away and they continue to harass me. The cops are in on it all here. I physically see them talking to these people. I cannot have a life of any sort. Who can we contact about this that is not part of it and will help? Does anyone know if the FBI is in on this? I definitely have broken some laws in my life, but it’s not like I am a rapist, child molester, or murderer. I’ve been nothing more than a drug addict. I’m not even a drug dealer. I’m simply a drug addict who’s done some really stupid shit, but nothing that would ever warrant this. How do we fix it? Who do we go to? Moreover, how are they getting all of this money?? They have to be spending thousands of dollars every time I leave my house. I have even seen them hiding in the woods with camo on. I need help her

    I believe all parts of the shadow government have infiltrated these intelligence agencies. basically they need someone to target so that resources can be allocated for these programs and since there are very few things and people who they see as real targets why not use are own citizens,,also these elites are all psychopaths so this is fun and games for them. the FBI is a good agency. although I believe that they have certain parts of the organization that have been corrupted by these infiltrators who misuse their power to continue programs like this,,read Richard lighthouse and Ted Gunderson testimonials. as targets very few people can help in this maybe try a american civil liberties lawyer

    Have faith in god brpther. Im in california amd its bad here

    apologize for typos? i frantically finger press down to select all and copy every few sentences due to abusers.

    when i first attempted to report ftc. after painstakingly typing my report, it would delete or crash so many times and when I realized to copy my progress, the site was banned from my network.

    then i decided to warn my neighbors and cooperate to secure network and weed out bad seeds . i posted warnings that my place was intruded. my weird neighbor called wellness report on me. first time having to speak to police like this and they were not seeing in in the best persepctives either. lol but one officer definitely got the sense of my honest that cannot be fibbed. just like cops have an instinct to smell fear and catch me in my former life, they can sense an honest reformed heart as well. or so i hope lol. my opinion stems from the fact that he advised to change my modem which i never thought i could do and every tech guy advised it being useless and routers being the only device needing securing. but with unbelievable efforts and advanced exploits, i saw how easily wifi can be havked if not powered off via outlet and then cell network disabled although showing full bars. If i knew then to strategize by being motionless like a statue i woukd have mitigated more exploits earlier as most require user action to finalize their most true intentions which is to fully reduce all devices leg of supports and verification process. sms, gmail forgot password, apple location (physically sane geolocation), bluetooth abd hotspot middle manning. malware, rat, ransom implemented usually in the beginning like a trojan horse.

    this is just like 10% of what these guys do. now that reports are going out, they are regressing to more low tech strategies. they should have left the scene by now but some loser with a short stick is cutting lose ends or being punished for having failed terribly. God bless u or yous lol. just dont kick or hurt my dog. i think the final attempt is pinning it on me and claiming me insane. insane or not, screw this stupid gangstalking i just read about a week ago after months of hell. insanity does not erase my original evidence of frauding elderly and ethnic groups. you have no idea how many lives are lost due to greed. i speak with life experiences which conpel me to raise fists against those who do so. especially those whi gets a kick out of it as if they were Enron

    I’ve been gang stalked recently. It was very hurtful. A device went in to my ear it was an electronic bug. It electrocuted me from inside my body moving around like bb’s. It cut me and also burned me from the inside of my body. I almost had commited suicide.

    My harassment began with a bang one spring morning in 󈨣. I know this whole scene and those that do it very well. I am very afraid it is too late for me. My bombardment is worse than ever now, and my body so damaged.
    I am disappointed I never see any references to SA on children, or child programing but one. It is ridiculously too long to use as an example for professionals to take in. If you know of a source for that, please let me know. I am looking for TI parents who were framed and forced through loss of child custody.
    Thank you.

    My stalkers are persistent but obvious and pathetic. I never doubted the reality I’ve always seen it as choreography, because they are obvious and rotten people. They work in the service of an IDENTITY THEFT RING. (I don’t know if they know that or…) The motivation is to yes harass to try and scare but they are also constantly “colliding” with you to get pieces of your identity. They have been running a many-year debit card scheme through my identity and the woman who used to live at the same address. Also up in a prepaid phone in my name. With everything prepaid and debit based you can’t see ANY of this on your credit report. People in the ring also work in opportunistic positions within the community (phone carriers, insurance companies)_ –where they can create “errors” (fraud) in their system to create many ‘synthetic identities” from the same base person. Keeps the ring around the victims and each ring-member pushing their ONE lever.

    These are law enforcement tactics. They also play skits using doppelgängers. Use Jesus as a
    Counter measure until you get a breakthrough. Father God will answer you . The afterlife is real and
    You are eternal.

    I would suggest checking out the human behavior-based Wall Street instruments Alison McDowell has been researching. She has reported there are groups that appear like social NGOs. However, they are fronts to stalk, monitor and collect data on different demographics, funded by huge capital firms like Goldman Sachs. See ROCA, for instance.
    ROCA has been funded by Goldman Sachs, in part. These fake NGOs are facilitating financial investment instruments based on “social impact” outcomes. They are fake “humanitarian” organizations. For instance they will predict behavior of a certain group of people and set up an finance instrument so that investors can play the stock market off the predicted behavior. So while they make it look like they try to “preemptively fix” people — (1) they violate the law and violate peoples’ personal lives without any conscience. (2) They project a “cost savings” (which equals their profit) off “behavior modification” of people (and also kids). This becomes an investment instrument.
    Although Alison McDowell has not talked about boots on the ground. Somewhere buried in this psychopathic scheme, are the duplicitous morons who are paid to stalk people. Like those who work for ROCA. And the stalkers are supposed to “influence” the behavior of whatever demographic has been targeted for this scheme.
    Basically it is a bunch of ultra-rich psychopaths manipulating people’s lives to bet on in the stock market.
    Please check out this podcast.

    I am being gangstalked for a while over a period of years. I am use to be referred to as the girl who viewed life as a bowl of creamed peaches. No longer as I seldom feel the need to smile other than sadly. The actions of those persons intent on harming me have become intense the last two years and I began my research in attempts to understand the reaction of others to me in defense to the state of Confusion and Upset I found myself. I use to enjoy the praise of others as I sought naturally to impress and please those I aspired too learn from who where mentors. I have had a hard adjustment to being treated as a criminal who has not committed a known offense and as such, I have not ever been charged with a crime. My many background checks nationally and globally have confirmed this fact but these gangstalkers have chosen to ignore the facts and attempt to rewrite my identity such is their power. I wrote on this site prior but see my narrative was never published. I am not being investigated but destroyed actively and horrendously. I am unemployable, friendless, cannot trust my relatives who have lied and then told me the lie and flipped it off as inconsequential which started the mess though likely the distant relatives had a problem that was fixed in exchange for false statements or perhaps they felt a duty to see themselves as that of a hero as sibling rivalry has no end for some. This is the fact and is the crime ongoing committed against the innocent who never usually know what is said behind their back to begin the process now becoming well known as Federal and Local Gangstalking by those who state they are duty bound to protect. Believe me please when I state a familiar quote known commonly as a life fact for those raised on any farm “The fox is guarding the hen house” as the fox enjoys the hen for lunch that is a disaster of a scene for the imagination and should never be realized as a guard over others by removal of all protections. Yet this is being done now to a few who are growing in numbers by the day. In my case for those who are doubting the significance or relevance of these testimonies, Attorneys refuse to represent me for identity theft or any other multiple complaints I have which is against my civil right to defend and know my accusers. I have no voice. I am not being accused and I am not REALLY under investigation as I am being actively destroyed by an army of people largely unknown to me. This is what the constitution of the United States sought to protect all American citizens against as alone we cannot stand and no individual should have to fight an army as the concept is ridiculous by the shear ratio of numbers. I have caught former peers stalking. A state career employment agency set me up for a frame and publicly denied my employment background to others. My privacy has been invaded to a degree only seen in concentration camps or iron curtain countries, others are encouraged by the abuse of my civil rights to join in and destroy me and my property or those who are close to me. I believe some have been rewarded by monetary value illegally to act against me. I am attempting to get my case out there nationally but no one cares about me. Research into my common name has revealed a possible source of initial investigative work Federally and I can easily prove mistaken identity but no one is asking as they are intent on destroying me. My relationship to my last standing parent is being presently threatened which is frightening but I must stand and fight this as I am right. No one will help me, I have no resource,… I cannot believe this is America the Free anymore. When did we start believing in gossip and not due process. Due process is suppose to use our eyes, ears, and intellect to avoid human cruelty of unjust actions against other living beings. Despite the statements to defame, I have done nothing but help others my entire life. That is my nature. This is so wrong and I cannot believe regular citizens are that unintelligent as to join in the false investigations. My work ethic and successes speak volumes but no one is looking at the facts. No one will be safe as this is the beginning of the end without constitutional due process. I just could not believe at first that anyone had that kind of power overt my rights to treat me so disrespectful and inconsequential, as a non existent person over gossip or with such cruelty of human nature. I have nothing left but to tell my story which goes on and is worse than fiction. I have come to the conclusion that these people will use every conceivable method to end me. I am completely excluded by these individuals on so many levels and that is not investigative skill but shear evil. Still I am here in this world with incredible talents that short of taking my life, I will not be silenced as their actions motivate me to tell all, to expose, to investigate how this all evolved to the present day. I like everyone enjoy comfort but I can evolve as I understand from experience that the materialism of this world is not the end but the challenge for the next level of existence and I have some peace that these gang stalkers harassment have a mortal limit unknown to themselves as they see their power has heady and infinite such is their deception to the world around them who care to engage and to themselves. Historical significance, but human adult beings never seem to learn as much as is the simple expectation seen in unsophisticated, undisciplined children. The parent is yet ever hopeful. I am sad for the undermining of this once great country based on a concept that we can all live free and equal together to pursue individualism while living in close proximity to each other without harm without jealousy without unjust interruption. The United States constitution is no longer implemented by exclusion for many and is therefore no longer effective for the larger populace. There is no legal recourse against an unjust Federal agency action which intends to over reach spouting ACTS that were framed with just that concept in mine to effectively removed the civil and basic human rights of all by acting to protect against national terrorist threats real or imagined there is no accountability.


    Attention is a central theme in cognitive science — it exemplifies the links between the brain and behaviour, and binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience. A visionary model suggested by Michael Posner described attention as a set of independent control networks. This challenged the previously held view of attention as a uniform concept. The idea that disparate attentional networks correlate with discrete neural circuitry and can be influenced by focal brain injuries, mental state and specific drugs has since been supported by converging data from several modern methodologies. Given the recent explosion in empirical data, attentional typologies provide powerful conceptual tools with which to contextualize and integrate these findings.



    The University of Michigan Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the experimental protocol. All methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations. Following written informed consent, seven subjects (ages between 22–30 years old 4 males and 3 females) were recruited. Subjects were compensated for their participation. Strict confidentiality was maintained throughout. Subjects were assigned a code number following their first contact in the protocol. This number (e.g. P04) was used throughout the experiment and was the only identifier on specimen samples, behavioral and physiological archival data, and magnetic resonance (MR) scans. The first subject (P01) was studied with saline (no propofol administration) as a control subject. P03 was excluded from the analysis due to excessive head movement during fMRI scanning.

    Inclusion and exclusion criteria

    Right-handed healthy participants of American Society of Anesthesiology physical status 1, aged 18–40, with a body mass index <30, who were experienced with racquet sports (at least 30 times over their lifetime) were eligible for inclusion. Subjects were excluded from participation if they did not speak English had any contraindication to MRI scanning possible pregnancy, extreme obesity, metallic substances in the body, claustrophobia, anxiety, or cardiopulmonary disease or have an intracranial structural abnormality on T1-weighted MRI scans or experience physical discomfort or excessive head movement during fMRI scanning. Potential subjects were also excluded if they had a history of neurological, cardiovascular, or pulmonary illness significant head injury with loss of consciousness learning disability or other developmental disorder sleep apnea or any severe snoring history or sensory/motor loss sufficient to interfere with performance of the study, gastroesophageal reflux disease, unwilling to abstain from alcohol use for 24 hours prior to their scheduled MRI study visit, history of drug use or a positive drug screen, tattoos on the head or neck region. Subjects with a history of allergic reaction to eggs are excluded.

    Anesthetic agents

    Propofol was our reference drug because it has been the most widely-used agent in human fMRI studies of anesthetic effects and we have considerable experience in this field 24,28,38,46,47,48,49 . The advantage of propofol is that it exerts minimal effects on cerebral and systemic hemodynamics 50,51 and therefore does not confound the fMRI results. Propofol suppresses neuronal activity mainly through an enhancement of GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition thus modulating widespread targets throughout the brain.

    Anesthetic administration and monitoring

    All subjects fasted for 8 hours before the study. An intavenous cannula was placed after a subcutaneous injection of lidocaine (1 ml of 1%) used as local anesthetic. Spontaneous respiration, end-tidal CO2, heart rate, and electrocardiogram were continuously monitored during the experiment. Noninvasive arterial pressure was measured with MR-compatible automatic monitor. Supplemental oxygen (2 L/min via nasal cannula) was used for all subjects. The propofol infusion rate was manually adjusted to achieve target effect-site concentrations (E.S.C.) of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 μg/ml as predicted by the Marsh TCI model 52 with each step maintained for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes at the 2.4 μg/ml level, the propofol infusion was discontinued. Based on our previous studies 24,48 , the range of E.S.C. for loss of responsiveness (LOR) varies between 1.2 and 2.0 μg/ml. In order to obtain >10 min data of PreLOR for comparison, two increments (0.4 and 0.8 μg/ml) were added before 1.2 μg/ml. Another consideration was that a relatively low dose of propofol (E.S.C. close to LOR) often induces agitation, resulting in frequent or large head movements. To minimize head motion effects, we increased the final E.S.C. one step above the expected maximum for LOR to 2.4 μg/ml. In agreement with our previous studies 24,48 , the E.S.C. of LOR in our current studied sample (n = 5) ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 μg/ml (mean ± SD = 1.52 ± 0.33 μg/ml).

    Mental imagery and motor response tasks

    Mental imagery and motor response tasks were studied before, during and after stepwise propofol infusion. Participants were asked to perform three imagery tasks (tennis, navigation and hand squeeze) plus a motor response task (actual hand squeeze). For tennis imagery, they were instructed to imagine standing still on a tennis court and to swing an arm to hit the ball back and forth to an imagined instructor. For navigation imagery, participants were instructed to imagine navigating the streets of a familiar city or to imagine walking from room to room in their home and to visualize all that they would see if they were there 6,7,20 . In the squeeze imagery task, participants were instructed to imagine squeezing an MRI compatible grip dynamometer (a rubber ball). In the motor response task, participants were instructed to actually grip the rubber ball (task following the squeeze imagery). A pseudo-randomized (Latin square) block design was applied, in which 15-second periods of tennis (and navigation) imagery, and 10-second periods of squeeze imagery with a hand squeeze within 5-second after hearing the instruction, alternated with 15-seconds of rest. The entire scan included 180 rest–imagery cycles (60 cycles per condition). The beginning of each trial was cued with the spoken word “tennis imagery”, “navigation imagery”, “squeeze imagery”, or “action”, and the rest period was cued with the word “relax”.

    The verbal instructions were programmed using E-Prime 3.0 (Psychology Software Tools, Pittsburgh, PA) and delivered via an audiovisual stimulus presentation system designed for an MRI environment. The volume of the headphones was adjusted for subject comfort. Behavioral responses were measured in mmHg of air pressure during squeezing the rubber ball, using BIOPAC ( MP160 system with AcqKnowledge software (V5.0). By comparing the timing of “action” instructions (expected motor response) and the actual motor response during and after stepwise propofol infusion, the periods during which a subject retained responsiveness (PreLOR), loss of responsiveness (LOR), and recovery of responsiveness (ROR) were determined. The offset of PreLOR, onset of LOR, offset of LOR, and onset of ROR were defined as the times of the last successful response of squeezing, the first failure to squeeze, the last failure to squeeze, and the first successful response of squeezing after LOR, respectively. The data during the transition periods between PreLOR and LOR and between LOR and ROR were not included in the analysis because the temporal resolution of the behavioral assessment (instruction to squeeze the ball) was 90 seconds on average, within which the behavioral responsiveness was uncertain.

    FMRI data acquisition

    Data were acquired at University of Michigan Hospital using a 3T Philips scanner with a standard 32-channel transmit/receive head coil. Before fMRI scans, T1 weighted spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) images was acquired for high spatial resolution of anatomical images with parameters: 170 sagittal slices, 1.0 mm thickness (no gap), TR = 8.1 s, TE = 3.7 ms, flip angle = 8°, FOV = 24 cm, image matrix 256 × 256 × 170. Functional images over the whole brain were acquired by a gradient-echo EPI pulse sequence with parameters: 21 slices, TR/TE = 800/25 ms by multiband acquisition, MB factor = 3, slice thickness = 6 mm, in-plane resolution = 3.4 × 3.4 mm field of view (FOV) = 22 cm, flip angle = 76°, image matrix: 64 × 64. Participants were asked to lay at rest with eyes closed in the scanner for the first 10-min and the last 10-min resting-state scan. They were asked not to move and to stay awake. Verbal instructions were presented through earphones. Four task fMRI scans were conducted including 15-min wakeful baseline (Base1), during (30-min) and after (30-min) stepwise propofol infusion, and another 15-min recovery baseline (Base2).

    FMRI data preprocessing

    Preprocessing steps were implemented in AFNI ( including: (1) slice timing correction (2) rigid body correction/realignment within and across runs (3) coregistration with high-resolution anatomical images (4) spatial normalization into Talaraich stereotactic space (5) resampling to 3 × 3 × 3 mm 3 voxels (6) regressing out linear and nonlinear drift, head motion and its temporal derivative, mean time series from the white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to control for physiological and non-neural noise, and band-pass filtered to 0.01–0.25 Hz (7) spatial smoothing with 6 mm full-width at half-maximum isotropic Gaussian kernel (8) the time-course per voxel of each run was normalized to zero mean and unit variance, accounting for differences in variance of non-neural origin (e.g., distance from head coil).

    The issue of head motion artifacts was addressed rigorously based on prior studies 53,54 . Frame-wise displacement (FD) motion censoring was calculated using frame-wise Euclidean Norm (square root of the sum squares) of the six-dimension motion derivatives. A frame (TR) and its each previous frame were censored if the given frame’s derivative value has a Euclidean Norm above FD = 0.5 mm. A binary time series of motion censoring file per scan per subject was created and used in the following analyses.

    Individual subject general linear model (GLM) analyses

    Four types of events corresponded to the three mental imagery tasks (tennis, navigation and squeeze), and actual motor response (action) were defined for each session. Events for each of these regressors were modeled and estimated by convolving onset times with a canonical hemodynamic response function using a BLOCK-model of the 3dDeconvolve function in AFNI. Estimated activation amplitude (beta) and t-statistics (two-sided) were calculated at the voxel level across the whole brain after censoring out the frames with FD >0.5 mm. This yielded four activation maps (tennis, navigation, squeeze and action) for each of the five sessions (Base1, PreLOR, LOR, ROR and Base2) per subject.

    Rigorous false positive control

    The issue of inflated false-positive rates (FPRs) in fMRI analysis has drawn wide attention 55,56 . Several recommendations have been provided to control FPRs for group level analysis, such as setting primary voxel level p < 0.001 combined with estimated cluster size (number of voxels) to reach alpha <0.01 at the cluster level. As the primary focus of our study as well as others 6,7 was to make statistical inference for a single subject, with potential clinical applications, it is crucial to control FPRs at the individual level 57 .

    It can be expected that ongoing spontaneous BOLD signal fluctuations may coincide (to a certain extent) with the timing of task events simply by coincidence. These task-irrelevant activations may give rise false positive results, especially when limited number of trials were applied and when the frequency of task events lies in the dominant low frequency fluctuations of BOLD signal (0.01–0.1 Hz) for instance, in our current task design, there was approximately 30-second rest-task cycles (

    0.03 Hz). We thus transformed the above issue by asking how much is the odds to observe positive results if the subjects were doing nothing (or mind wondering) during task-free state by applying the same task structure (e.g. task duration, inter-trial-internals, and number of trials).

    First, we took the two 10-min resting state scans as task surrogate data and performed permutation-like analyses. We applied the same task structure (pseudo-event triggers) and shuffled the onset time (10 times) and the sequence (16 times) for the four conditions (tennis, navigation, squeeze and action), yielding 10 × 16 × 4 = 640 GLM analyses per subject. We applied this approach in 10 subjects, of which 7 subjects came from the current reported experiment and 3 subjects came from another experimental protocol with the same fMRI setting. This produced 6400 “activation” maps.

    Second, we estimated the FPRs using AFNI’s upgraded function 3dClustSim that simulates noise volume assuming the spatial auto-correlation function is given by a mixed-model rather than a Gaussian-shaped function 56 . As a result, cluster level alpha <0.01 corresponds to voxel level p < 0.001 combined with a cluster size of 72–100 voxels the range of cluster sizes was estimated based on the residual data of each GLM analysis across subjects. We then set voxel level p < 0.001 and the maximal cluster size of 100 voxels as a threshold (namely, level-1 correction) for the above 6400 maps. For a given map, if there was at least one cluster that survived at level-1 correlation, then it was considered as one positive observation. Activation (positive BOLD) and deactivation (negative BOLD) were counted separately. We next calculated the odds of positive observations (activation and deactivation) among the 6400 maps. Strikingly, the FPRs was 93% for activation and 95% for deactivation. Due to the high FPRs of the simulated results based on the resting-state data, the level-1 correction was obviously not appropriate for any statistical inference at the individual level.

    We sought to reduce the FPRs by decreasing the voxel level p-values by fixing the cluster size at 100 voxels. In other words, we sought to delineate a distribution with FPRs change as function of voxel level p-values. This was achieved by threshholding the 6400 maps using multiple p-values ranging from p = 0.05 to p = 1.E-30. As a result, voxel level p = 1.E-15 with a cluster size of 100 voxels reduced the FPRs to <5%. We thereby defined this threshold as level-2 correlation for detecting “true” activation at the single-subject level.

    Definition of regions of interest (ROIs)

    To control for individual anatomical variability, ROIs were defined for each condition (e.g. tennis) of each individual by the overlapped activation maps across the four sessions when subjects can overtly respond during Base1, PreLOR, ROR and Base2. Level-2 correlation was applied unless no activation was detected for a given condition/session (among the four)/subject the voxel level p-value was then relaxed to one level higher (e.g. from p = 1.E-15 to 1.E-14) and so on until overlapped regions (cluster size >100 voxels) can be found. The imagery and motor response tasks have been shown to elicit reliable and distinguishable patterns of activation 6,7,20,21 . Based on these studies with the known neuroanatomical functions, our targeted ROIs were the supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PreM) and precuneus/inferior parietal lobule (PreCu/IPL) for tennis imagery the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and posterior parietal lobe (PPC) for navigation imagery the SMA and PreM for squeeze imagery and the primary motor cortex (M1) for actual motor response. Of note, there were individual variability of the ROIs during tennis and squeeze imagery. For instance, the SMA activation extended to PreM (forming a large cluster) during tennis imagery for some subjects, while either SMA or PreM was active during squeeze imagery for some subjects. To simplify the terminology, we referred SMA/PreM (a joint cluster, SMA or PreM alone) as the ROI name for tennis and squeeze imagery.

    Time-shifting analysis

    To confirm that the mental imagery task-related brain activation was indeed time-locked to the instructions’ onset rather than potential signal contamination from the preceding trial, and to explore if there was any delayed brain activation due to the prolongation of intrinsic brain activity during sedation 24 , we performed the same GLM analysis but shifting the events timing backward and forward. Specifically, events for each regressor was shifted backward to −32 s (40 TRs TR = 0.8 s) and forward to 32 s in steps of 0.8 s (1 TR) centered at the instruction onset (0 s). This yielded 81 activation maps for each condition (tennis, navigation, squeeze and action) of each session (Base1, PreLOR, LOR, ROR, and Base2) per subject. The estimated activation was then extracted for each time point from the above-defined ROIs. This produced curves with estimated activation changes as a function of time shift. If the brain activity were time-locked to the task, we expected to see a peak around t = 0 s. Alternatively, if there were delayed brain activity, the peak should have shifted forward.

    Functional connectivity between pre-defined ROIs

    To investigate the changes in functional connectivity between brain regions (ROI-FC), the individual subjects’ mean BOLD signal time series from SMA/PreM (defined by squeeze imagery), bilateral thalamus (derived from the AFNI atlas), and PreCu/IPL (defined by tennis imagery) were extracted from each session. Qualitative estimation of functional connectivity changes was performed by calculating Pearson’s correlation coefficients (Fisher’s Z transformed) between SMA/PreM and thalamus, and between SMA/PreM and PreCu/IPL. Unlike conventional functional connectivity analysis applied in resting-state data, correlations between time series during tasks may indicate the integrity of functional interactions across regions with respect to the task 28,58,59,60 .

    Global functional connectivity

    We adopted a well-established node template derived from a previous study 61 and modified by our recent one 24 , containing 226 nodes (10 mm diameter spheres, 32 voxels per sphere) within 10 functional networks, namely, subcortical (Sub), dorsal attention (DA), ventral attention (VA), default mode (DMN), fronto-parietal task control (FPTC), cingulo-opercular task control (COTC), salience (Sal), sensory/somatomotor (SS), auditory (Audi), and visual networks (Visual). Next, we computed the Pearson correlation coefficient of the time courses (bandpass filtered to 0.01–0.1 Hz) between each pair of nodes, yielding a pairwise 226 × 226 correlation matrix (Fisher’s Z transformed) for each session of each subject. For a measure of global functional connectivity (GFC) 24 , we calculated the average of the triangular of the matrix of size 226 × (226-1)/2.

    Topographical similarity

    Topographical similarity (Topo) was defined by the correlation coefficient between a reference correlation matrix (Base1) and a correlation matrix for other sessions (PreLOR, LOR, ROR and Base2) of each subject. Therefore, Topo quantifies the divergence of spatial connectivity configuration (among the nodes) from baseline 24 .

    Statistical analysis

    Level-2 correction was applied for whole brain voxel-wise analysis, and statistical inference was made at the individual level. For the ROI-FC, GFC and Topo, repeated-measure ANOVAs with post-hoc Tukey HSD tests across five sessions were performed.


    The main idea of a traditional Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP)-BCI is the activation of commands through gaze control. However, the widely named “dependent” SSVEP-BCIs might not be applicable for patients with ocular motor impairments or severe neuromuscular problems. Nevertheless, an “independent” SSVEP-BCIs might be a potential approach to solve this problem. This study presents a novel independent-BCI based on SSVEP using Figure-Ground Perception (FGP), terminology widely known and used in Gestalt psychology for object recognition by means of changes in perception. This BCI proposes to identify two different targets that represent commands in a limited visual space without needing to shift the gaze by the paradigm of covert attention. For that purpose, the well-known example of Rubin's face-vase in FGP was used. The traditional EEG signal analysis consists of three steps: filtering, feature extraction and classification. In this work, two techniques were used for performance comparison, and the classification was obtained through a criterion of maxima for both techniques. Ten subjects participated in this study in offline tests and five subjects for online tests. The flickering frequencies were 15.0 Hz (vase) and 11.0 Hz (faces). Our results demonstrate that the electrode Oz is the best channel for characterization of visual perception, from a quantitative point of view based on the canonical correlation, after a channel analysis by independent way. Regarding the classification, MSI technique was more accurate in relation to CCA, in all the cases with same conditions, either using three electrodes or a single electrode (Oz), even for different window lengths. The online performance appeared to decrease as participants switched from Face (82.7%) to Vase (76%) stimulus. These results are consistent with our results in offline tasks. Muscular activity related to the eye movements was also evaluated using a commercial device of eye tracking (Eye Tribe). These findings strongly support the hypothesis of visual selectivity by means of perception and neural mechanism of spatial attention.

    VIBS 407 Final

    a dramatic change in magnitude cuild occur soon.

    a change in state is likely.

    Who first popularized the idea of evolution?

    Beginning of Unsustainability

    Drop in amount of species

    Higher ratio of brain size to body size

    The ratio of brain size to body size

    A neural representation of something sensed or remembered

    The neural representation of an impulse

    Certain steps in a formula to decipher the way people live

    A tangible representation of the brain

    Everything is connected directly

    Nothing is connected it is mere consequence

    Everything is connected, whether directly or indirectly

    Everything is connected indirectly

    Information Theory Equation

    Higher thinking mammals Humans

    Neurons couple together in the cytoplasm

    Ramon Cajal proved that neurons were in a web of interconnected fibers

    Neurons were to be studied separately from the dendritic spines

    Neurons had been discovered

    Liquid-state electronics Protons

    The surrounding environment

    Activation of immune processes

    Migration of only macrophages to the damaged area

    Swelling, increased blood flow

    Local rise in temperature

    We need free radicals to live but antioxidants are speeding up cell death

    The amount of free radicals in our cells is disproportionately higher than antioxidants but we need antioxidants.

    We need oxygen to breathe but oxidation is also contributing to death.

    Antioxidants inhibit death while free radicals prohibit death but we need both

    The reorganization of the fetus' receptive field

    Firing of neurons in a sequential pattern during development

    The environment affects the sequence of genes, which either helps/hurts brain development

    The environment affects how genes are activated/suppressed and that determines the function of the nervous system

    They both share a progressive lifespan

    Both the Environmental effects and brain development share the senses

    Increase in neuronal connection with increase in age-

    glial formation of myelin, neurons

    topographical mapping, sensory function

    neurons, glial formation of myelin

    Survival of the Fittest among the species

    The idea that neurons are predestined to either wither in apoptosis or survive

    The theory that neurons are selected by the body to survive-

    Survival of the fittest in regards to all neurons, glial cells and white blood cells

    DNA that has been used and is out of sequence

    Much of this DNA codes for the expression of DNA

    Hypothalamus and olfactory bulb

    "An apple a day keeps the doctor away"

    "Life is hard and then you die"

    "When in doubt, see your way out"

    The act of the brain deciding which senses it wants to stimulate

    Due to differing channels, certain sensations are given priority

    The senses themselves are "ranked" in the environment and the highest ranked sensation will be perceived first

    Survival of the fittest for the senses

    The closer to the brain, the more sensitive the body part

    Because many sensory neurons have terminal arborizations with small receptive fields in the nose

    There is increased sensitivity due to the lack of nerve fibers

    Many sensory neurons have large receptive fields there

    Both fields are represented equally

    Large fields are better represented than small ones

    Large fields are represented more poorly than small ones

    Receptive fields are not represented in the nervous system

    Transformation of blood flow to oxygen consumption information

    Conversion of one form of energy or state to another

    Improving the resolution of receptive fields

    Cranial and spinal nerves

    Brainstem reticular formation

    Executive areas of the neocortex

    Hormone released by the pituitary gland

    Can be impaired by poor nurturing

    Sometimes called the moral or trust molecule

    Release can be triggered by empathy

    Addiction leads to tolerance

    Tolerating the behavior more over time

    Becoming accepting of the addiction

    Needing more of the activity to feel the same effects

    The "bad brain" made the person a criminal.

    This indicator of metabolism correlates with neuronal processing.-

    A person is not responsible for his/her "bad brain."-

    It is hard to draw a conclusion.

    Neurohormones have no direct target, while neurotransmitters do

    Neurotransmitters are released into synapses, while neurohormones are released into the blood

    Neurotransmitters are released by the hypothalamus while axon terminals release neurohormones

    Neurohormones have a direct target and neurotransmitters have no direct target

    Approach center avoidance center

    Hunger center satiety center

    Positive center negative center

    Salience (when a particular activity becomes the most important activity in the person's life)

    Mood modification (the use of the activity as a way of either getting a 'high' or 'buzz' and/or using the activity to escape, de-stress or numb)

    Tolerance (needing more and more of the activity over time to feel the mood modifying effects)

    Psychological, but not physical, withdrawal symptoms (psychological and/or physiological consequences such as excess moodiness and irritability if unable to engage in the activity)

    Neuroscience Exam 3 [cumulative info not included]

    the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant.

    Multiple Stages of Memory Storage

    Multiple Learning/Memory Systems
    (i.e., many brain regions involved)

    patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons.

    Gave a "tetanus" - 1 second of high-frequency stimulation

    Baseline Response to Test Pulse

    (Typically 100 stimuli in 1 second)

    Response to Test Pulse Each Minute
    After Tetanus

    Potentiation occurred rapidly after Tetanus

    What Lømo unexpectedly observed was that the postsynaptic cells' response to these single-pulse stimuli could be enhanced for a long period of time if he first delivered a high-frequency train of stimuli to the presynaptic fibers.

    When such a train of stimuli was applied, subsequent single-pulse stimuli elicited stronger, prolonged EPSPs in the postsynaptic cell population.

    More controlled stimulation because there is no ongoing brain activity

    Allows for drug treatments

    Calcium enters through a special glutamate receptor [NMDA receptor:
    "Ca2+ flux through NMDARs is thought to be critical in synaptic plasticity, a cellular mechanism for learning and memory."]

    AMPARs play a key role in this process, as one of the key indicators of LTP induction is the increase in the ratio of AMPAR to NMDARs following high-frequency stimulation.

    AMPA receptors play a key role in the generation and spread of epileptic seizures

    Involves modification of existing AMPA-type Glutamate receptors to be more active
    (p = phosphorylation)

    Involves modification of existing AMPA-type Glutamate receptors to be more active

    Korsakov notes how in cases like Jimmie's, memory of recent events is forgotten almost instantaneously, impressions formed recently disappear, yet the ingenuity, wit, and resourcefulness of the patient remain stagnant. This can be brought on [as it was in Jimmie's case] through neuronal destruction in the mammillary bodies due to alcohol abuse.

    He lacks the ability to form new memories, and also cannot recall aspects of his past memories, frequently believing that he has only recently awoken from a coma

    contracted herpesviral encephalitis, a herpes simplex virus that attacked his central nervous system.

    Since this point, he has been unable to store new memories. He has also been unable to control emotions (unstable mood) and to associate memories effectively.

    Because of damage to the hippocampus, an area required to transfer memories from short-term to long-term memory, he is completely unable to form lasting new memories - his memory only lasts between 7 and 30 seconds

    Wearing still recalls how to play the piano and conduct a choir - all this despite having no recollection of having received a musical education. This is because his procedural memory was not damaged by the virus

    Molaison developed severe anterograde amnesia: although his working memory and procedural memory were intact, he could not commit new events to his declarative memory

    had moderate retrograde amnesia, and could not remember most events in the one- to two-year period before surgery, nor some events up to 11 years before, meaning that his amnesia was temporally graded.

    his ability to form long-term procedural memories was intact thus he could, for example, learn new motor skills, despite not being able to remember learning them.

    ability to complete tasks that require recall from short-term memory and procedural memory but not long-term episodic memory suggests that recall from these memory systems may be mediated, at least in part, by different areas of the brain.

    Since HM did not show any memory impairment before the surgery, the removal of the medial temporal lobes can be held responsible for his memory disorder.

    Consequently, the medial temporal lobes can be assumed to be a major component involved in the formation of semantic and episodic long-term memories

    EEG looks similar to when awake
    Hence, also called "paradoxical sleep"
    Remembered dreams are common
    Muscle movement is inhibited

    EEG activity is synchronized, producing slow waves with a frequency of less than 1 Hz and a relatively high amplitude

    important for memory consolidation

    impaired memory consolidation has been seen in individuals with primary insomnia who thus do not perform as well as those who are healthy in memory tasks following a period of sleep

    improves declarative memory (which includes semantic and episodic memory).

    Watch the video: Attention, intention, and retention in frontoparietal cortex (November 2022).