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Names for effects of sleep deprivation on the brain & body

Names for effects of sleep deprivation on the brain & body


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When staying awake for a long period (3 or 4 days), some weird phenomena can occur. In my experience, it was always triggered by thinking too deeply and has in other occasions too.

Do these things have names at all?


During extreme sleep deprivation you can briefly fall asleep, this is known as a microsleep. The disorientation that you experienced can be referred to as Hypogogia.

Hypogogia covers a range of effects including visual and aural hallucinations as well as having thoughts that are experienced as seeming logical during the microsleep but illogical once you're awake.


What Are the Physical Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Human Body?

Sanja Jelic, MD is board-certified in pulmonary disease, sleep medicine, critical care medicine, and internal medicine. She is an assistant professor and attending physician at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, NY .

Sleep deprivation is common for people in many societies, seemingly with no long-term damages, but is this true? Does sleep deprivation have lasting physical effects on the human body? What happens if you do not get enough sleep to meet your sleep needs? Learn about some of the consequences to your health, ranging from impacts on the nervous system affecting the brain and pain, vital sign changes affecting blood pressure, and hormone changes that impact weight gain and thyroid function.


How Are Memory and Sleep Connected?

Sleep and memory share a complex relationship. Getting enough rest helps you process new information once you wake up, and sleeping after learning can consolidate this information into memories, allowing you to store them in your brain.

Related Reading

During these NREM stages, the brain also sorts through your various memories from the previous day, filtering out important memories and eliminating other information. These selected memories will become more concrete as deep NREM sleep begins, and this process will continue during REM sleep. Emotional memories are also processed in the REM stage, which can help you cope with difficult experiences.

Most dreaming occurs in REM sleep. The thalamus of the brain transmits cues from your five senses to the cerebral cortex, a thin layer of the cerebrum that interprets and processes information from your memories. The thalamus is largely inactive during NREM stages, but when REM sleep begins, it will relay images, sounds, and other sensations to the cerebral cortex that are then integrated into your dreams.


Diabetes:

With regular loss of sleep, less insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar, is released into the body after meals. This creates a vicious cycle, as it causes the body to secrete more cortisol, which causes you to stay awake while also making it harder for insulin to do its job. [SOURCE: https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/link-between-lack-sleep-and-type-2-diabetes]. The result is too much glucose in the bloodstream, which is the signal for Type 2 diabetes. In fact, your risk for Type 2 diabetes nearly triples with chronic sleep deprivation. More specifically, people regularly getting only four to six and a half hours of sleep per night see a decrease in deep sleep, which is considered the critically important restorative stage of sleep, and also plays a key role in the body’s modulation of insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control.


How To Get The Sleep That Your Brain Needs

Imagine being at work and trying to get an important project done. You’re clacking away on your keyboard and you’re totally in the zone–when all of the sudden a coworker walks into your cubicle and stands in front of your computer screen. Suddenly, you can’t get your stuff done because somebody is literally blocking your path.

Similarly, sleep is the time that your brain uses to get all of its important projects done—allowing you to function like a healthy, productive human instead of a zombie during the day. But when you stay up late or do other stuff that makes it harder to fall asleep (like load up on caffeine before bed or spend tons of time in front of electronic devices), you become the coworker standing in front of the computer screen. With your bad habits in the way, your brain can’t get its stuff done.

So how much sleep do you actually need? Everyone’s a little different. While some people aren’t at the top of their game with anything less than nine hours, others do just fine on seven.

And anything within that range is considered healthy—so it’s really a matter of experimenting to see how you feel. If you’re tired or fuzzy during the day, you aren’t getting enough sleep, so tack on some more time and bed to see if that leaves you more alert.

If your problem is trouble falling asleep, though, the answer might not be so obvious. If you’re already sleeping for eight and a half or nine hours, it could be a sign that you need to push your bedtime back by a little bit.

More likely, you’re having trouble falling asleep because you’re stressed or are exposed to too much energizing stimuli at night, or are just plain uncomfortable. If that’s the case, try finding a calming bedtime routine to help you wind down, or take steps to make your bedroom more comfortable.

Don’t overlook what you sleep on either. You can practice the best sleep health tips but if you’re going to bed on a rock, good quality sleep will be hard to find. Finding a comfortable mattress that supports you will go a long way in helping you sleep better.

This article is for informational purposes and should not replace advice from your doctor or other medical professional.

About the author

Stacy Liman is a journalism graduate student and a freelance writer with a focus on mindfulness and content marketing. Stacy enjoys discovering new mattresses and connecting people with their perfect bed, but she more so enjoys understanding and writing about the science of sleep to help people get deeper, healthier rest.


Sleep Deprivation Effects On The Body – Shocking Discovery

According to a near-constant stream of research, most of us need between six and eight hours of shut-eye each night.

Unfortunately, only about 30% of us are getting it and 50-70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep problem.

Sleep deprivation is now called a Public Health Epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

And sleep deprivation takes an enormous toll on our bodies including slower metabolism, fat retention, hormone imbalances, and reduced focus and problem-solving abilities. It can also lead to major weight gain and obesity.

Also, those without enough sleep are more likely to suffer from other chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, depression, and obesity, as well as from cancer, increased mortality and reduced quality of life and productivity.

Most stress occur because of some positive events like getting married or starting a new job can stress us out.

In fact, one study showed that just one week of sleeping fewer than six hours a night resulted in changes to more than 700 genes.

And that’s alarming news, considering nearly half of Americans don’t bank the recommended seven or more hours of shut-eye a night. Read on for the nightmare-inducing truth about what could be happening to your body due to sleep loss, starting the very first night.

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation

– Loose Sleep, Loose Your Mind and Health

Lack of Enough Sleep Can Lead To an accident.

Getting six or fewer hours of shut-eye a night triples your risk of drowsy driving-related accidents, according to the National Sleep Foundation’s Drowsydriving.org.

Plus, just one bad night’s sleep can affect a driver’s eye-steering coordination, according to research from Manchester Metropolitan University.

And sleep deprivation can just make you generally more clumsy, whether you’re behind the wheel or not,reports Prevention.

Lack of Enough Sleep Affect Your Appearance.

A study found that sleep deprived study participants were rated as less attractive and sadder. A different study from the Medical Institutet Karolinska in Stockholm, Sweden found that exhausted people are also judged to be less approachable.

And the problem only gets worse over time: Researchers have linked chronic sleep deprivation with skin aging.

Lack of Enough Sleep Can Make You To catch cold

Good rest is one of the building blocks of a healthy immune system. In fact, one Carnegie Mellon University study found that sleeping fewer than seven hours a night was associated with a tripled risk of coming down with a cold.

DURING SLEEP, YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM RELEASES PROTEINS CALLED CYTOKINES, SOME OF WHICH HELP PROMOTE SLEEP. CERTAIN CYTOKINES NEED TO INCREASE WHEN YOU HAVE AN INFECTION OR INFLAMMATION, OR WHEN YOU’RE UNDER STRESS. SLEEP DEPRIVATION MAY DECREASE PRODUCTION OF THESE PROTECTIVE CYTOKINES. IN ADDITION, INFECTION-FIGHTING ANTIBODIES AND CELLS ARE REDUCED DURING PERIODS WHEN YOU DON’T GET ENOUGH SLEEP.

GETTING SLEEPY NATURAL SLEEP AIDS

Lack of Enough Sleep Can You Losing Brain Tissue

A recent study of 15 men, published in the journal SLEEP, found that just one night of sleep deprivation was linked with signs of brain tissue loss, measured by blood levels of two brain molecules that usually increase after brain damage.

25 Scary And Surprising Effects Of Sleep Deprivation

Lack of Enough Sleep Can You more likely to get emotional

One 2007 study from researchers at the University of California, Berkeley and Harvard Medical School used functioning Magnetic Resonance Imaging to show that after sleep deprivation.

And the brain’s emotional centers were more more than 60 percent more reactive. “It’s almost as though, without sleep, the brain had reverted back to more primitive patterns of activity, in that it was unable to put emotional experiences into context and produce controlled, appropriate responses,” senior author Matthew Walker, director of UC Berkeley’s Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory, said in a statement. “Emotionally, you’re not on a level playing field.”

Lack of Enough Sleep Leads to Less focused and having memory problems.

Being exhausted zaps your focus, and can render you more forgetful (no wonder you keep misplacing your cell phone after a bad night between the sheets).

On top of that, sleep is thought to be involved in the process of memory consolidation, according to Harvard, which means shortchanging it can make it more difficult to learn and retain newthings.

Lack of Enough Sleep Leads Can Lead To stroke risk quadruples

Research presented at the SLEEP 2012 conference suggested that getting fewer than six hours a night can ratchet up stroke risk for middle- and older-aged people. “These people sleeping less than six hours had a four times increased risk of experiencing these stroke symptoms compared to their normal weight counterparts that were getting seven to eight hours,” study researcher Megan Ruiter, of the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Lack of Enough Sleep Leads Can Lead To Obesity Risk Jumps

Not only can short-term sleep loss lead to increased caloric consumption, but multiple studies have suggested a link between chronic sleep deprivation and increased obesity risk over time.

And One 2012 research review from Penn State, for instance, found that sleeping fewer than six hours a night was linked with changes in levels of the appetite hormones ghrelin and leptin.

And another 2012 study published in the American Journal of Human Biology showed that too little sleep was tied to changes in appetite regulation, which could trigger people to eat more. Lack of sleep cause acne.

Lack of Enough Sleep Leads Can Result to cancers increase

One Cancer study of 1,240 participants who underwent colonoscopies found that those who slept fewer than six hours a night had a 50 percent spike in risk of colorectal adenomas, which can turn malignant over time.

Another 2012 study identified a possible link between sleep and aggressive breast cancers. Researchers have also suggested a correlation between sleep apnea and increased cancer risk of any kind.

Lack of Enough Sleep Leads Can Make diabetes risk goes up

A 2013 study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that too little (and too much!) sleep was linked with a host of chronic diseases, including Type 2 diabetes.

And the same 2012 study that found that sleep deprivation was linked to hormonal changes associated with obesity also found that too little sleep was tied to decreased insulin sensitivity, a diabetes risk factor.

Sleep Deprivation Can Increases Risk of Heart Disease.

Chronic sleep deprivation has been associated with high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (or cholesterol-clogged arteries), heart failure and heart attack, Harvard Health Publications reports.

A 2011 study from Warwick Medical School researchers found that inadequate shut-eye was tied to heart attack risk, as well as cardiovascular disorders and stroke.

“If you sleep less than six hours per night and have disturbed sleep you stand a 48 percent greater chance of developing or dying from heart disease and a 15 per cent greater chance of developing or dying of a stroke,” lead author Francesco Cappuccio said in a statement on the findings.

And this were published in the European Heart Journal. “The trend for late nights and early mornings is actually a ticking time bomb for our health so you need to act now to reduce your risk of developing these life-threatening conditions.”

Lack of Enough Sleep Leads To Low sperm count.

We know that exhaustion isn’t typically conducive to getting busy, skipping your Zzs can take a hit on fertility.

A 2013 study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology of 953 young men in Denmark found that those with high levels of sleep disturbances had a 29 percent lower concentration of sperm in their semen.

Lack of Enough Sleep Leads To Risk of Death.

A SLEEP study evaluating 1,741 men and women over the course of 10 to 14 years discovered that men who slept fewer than six hours had a significant increase in mortality risk, even after adjusting for diabetes, hypertension and other factors.


Chronic partial sleep restriction

Although chronic partial sleep restriction is common in everyday life and even more prevalent than total SD, surprisingly few studies have evaluated its effects on cognitive performance. Even fewer studies have compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic partial sleep restriction. Belenky and co-workers (2003) evaluated the effect of partial sleep restriction in a laboratory setting in groups which were allowed to spend 3, 5 or 7 h in bed daily for seven consecutive days. The control group spent 9 h in bed. In the 3 h group, both speed and accuracy in the PVT deteriorated almost linearly as the sleep restriction continued. In this group, performance was clearly the worst. In the 5- and 7 h groups, performance speed deteriorated after the first two restriction nights, but then remained stable (though impaired) during the rest of the sleep restriction from the third night onwards. Impairment was greater in the 5- than 7 h group. Accuracy followed the same pattern in the 7 h group, but further declined in the 5 h group as the study went on. The control group’s performance did not change during the study. Intriguingly, a highly similar pattern was observed in another study with the same task when sleep was restricted by 33% of the subject’s habitual nightly sleep, which resulted in 5 h of sleep per night on average ( Dinges et al 1997 ). Both speed and accuracy were impaired at the beginning of the sleep restriction period followed by a plateau and finally, another drop after the seventh night of deprivation. However, no change was found in probed recall memory or serial addition tests, probably because of the practice effect and short duration of the tests (serial addition test: 1 min).

It is difficult to compare the effects of total and partial SD based on existing literature due to large variation in methodologies, including the length of SD or the type of cognitive measures. The only study that has compared total and partial SD found that after controlling learning effects, cognitive performance declined almost linearly in the course of the study in all four experimental groups ( Van Dongen et al 2003a ): one group was exposed to 3 nights total SD, and in other experimental groups, time in bed was restricted to 4 or 6 h for 14 consecutive days. The control group was allowed 8 h in bed for 14 days. Impairment in psychomotor vigilance test and digit symbol substitution task for the 4 h group after 14 days was equal to that of the total SD group after 2 nights. Deterioration in the serial addition/subtraction task for the 4 h group was similar to that of the total SD group after 1 night. The effect of 6 h restricted sleep corresponded to 1 night of total SD in psychomotor vigilance and digit symbol. Performance remained unaffected in the control group.

According to the well-controlled studies ( Dinges et al 1997 Belenky et al 2003 Van Dongen et al 2003a ), the less sleep obtained due to sleep restriction, the more cognitive performance is impaired. Otherwise, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the effects of chronic sleep restriction because of methodological problems in the previous studies. Blagrove et al (1995) compared subjects that slept at home either 5 h or 8 h per night for 4 weeks and found no effect in a short task of logical reasoning (duration 5 min). The statistical analyses were compromised by the small sample size (6 subjects in the experimental group and only 4 subjects in the control group). In another protocol, they also carried out auditory vigilance test, two column addition, finding embedded figures, and logical reasoning (10 min) tasks, and again no effect was observed with groups of 6𠄸 subjects having 4, 5 or 8 h sleep per night for 7, 19 or 40 weeks respectively ( Blagrove et al 1995 ). Casement et al (2006) reported no change in working memory and motor speed in the group whose sleep was restricted to 4 h per night for 9 nights. In the control group, performance improved. The study was carried out in a controlled clinical environment, but only one short test session per day was included, which means that subjects may have been able to temporarily increase their effort and thus maintain their performance. Furthermore, the results were confounded by the practice effect. In other sleep restriction studies, SD cannot be considered chronic, since the length of the restriction has been 1𠄳 nights ( Stenuit and Kerkhofs 2005 Swann et al 2006 Versace et al 2006 ).

Since chronic partial SD mimics every day life situations more than acute total SD, additional studies on how it affects cognitive performance are warranted. In addition, the tasks used in previous studies have been quite short and simple, and trials with more demanding cognitive tasks are required. The effects of sleep restriction have also been addressed by drive simulation studies, which are interesting and practical designs. Just one night of restricted sleep (4 h) increased right edge-line crossings in a motorway drive simulation of 90 minutes ( Otmani et al 2005 ). However, neither the drivers’ position in the lane nor the amplitude and frequency of steering wheel movements were affected. One sleep-restricted night did not increase the probability of a crash, but after five nights of partial SD, the quantity of accidents increased ( Thorne et al 1999 ).


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Meta-analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on depression in patients and animals

Objective Research on the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD) is lagging and has not produced completely uniform results in humans and animals. The present study aimed to reassess the effect of SD on patients and animals by meta-analysis based on updated research.

Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library for articles since the first relevant literature published up to June 10th, 2019. Data on sample characteristics, features of SD, and tests for depression were extracted.

Results Fourteen articles were included, eight on humans and six on animals. We found that when the duration of SD in patients was 7–14 days, it reflected antidepression [-1.52 (−2.07, −0.97) I 2 =19.6%]. In animals, the results of sucrose consumption experiments showed that SD has depressogenic effects [-1.06 (−1.63, −0.49) I 2 =81.1%], while the results of forced swimming experiments showed that SD treated depression [-1.17 (−2.19, −0.16) I 2 =80.1%], regardless of the duration of sleep deprivation.

Conclusion SD can be an effective antidepressant measure when the duration is 7–14 days in patients. In animal studies, SD has shown more antidepressant effects when measured by forced swimming experiments, whereas using sucrose consumption tests had the effect of worsening depression.


Your Sleep/Wake Cycle - How Sleep Works

Many factors play a role in preparing your body to fall asleep and wake up. Your body has several internal clocks, called circadian clocks . These typically follow a 24-hour repeating rhythm, called the circadian rhythm. This rhythm affects every cell, tissue, and organ in your body and how they work. Learn more in our Circadian Rhythms Disorders Health Topic.

Your central circadian clock, located in your brain, tells you when it is time for sleep. Other circadian clocks are located in organs throughout your body. Your body’s internal clocks are in sync with certain cues in the environment. Light, darkness, and other cues help determine when you feel awake and when you feel drowsy. Artificial light and caffeine can disrupt this process by giving your body false wakefulness cues.

Your body has a biological need for sleep that increases when you have been awake for a long time. This is controlled by homeostasis, the process by which your body keeps your systems, such as your internal body temperature, steady. A compound called adenosine is linked to this need for sleep. While you are awake, the level of adenosine in your brain continues to rise. The rising levels signal a shift toward sleep. Caffeine and certain drugs can interrupt this process by blocking adenosine.

If you follow a natural schedule of days and nights, light signals received through your eyes tell your brain that it is daytime. The area of your brain that receives these signals, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus, transmits the signals to the rest of your body through the sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system . This helps your central body clock stay in tune with the day and night. Exposure to artificial light interferes with this process.

The light–dark cycle influences when your brain makes and releases a hormone called melatonin. Melatonin travels to the cells in your body through your bloodstream. The amount of melatonin in your bloodstream starts to increase in the evening and peaks in the early morning. Melatonin is thought to promote sleep. As you are exposed to more light, such as the sun rising, your body releases another hormone called cortisol. Cortisol naturally prepares your body to wake up.

Exposure to bright artificial light in the late evening can disrupt this process and prevent your brain from releasing melatonin. This can make it harder to fall asleep. Examples of bright artificial light include the light from a TV screen, a smartphone, or a very bright alarm clock. Some people use physical filters or software to filter out some of the blue light from these devices.

Some people have problems with their sleep/wake cycle, meaning that their brain does not keep them awake or asleep at appropriate times. Examples include:

  • Insomnia. People who have insomnia have trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or both. As a result, they may get too little sleep or not enough quality sleep. They may not feel refreshed when they wake up.
  • Narcolepsy. Narcolepsy causes periods of extreme daytime sleepiness. The disorder may also cause muscle weakness.

Sometimes, your central circadian clock is not properly aligned with your sleep time. Examples include:

  • Jet lag. Many people have trouble adjusting their sleep to fit a new time zone. This usually resolves within a few days.
  • Shift work disorder. People who work at night may have trouble sleeping during the day.

Did you know that your circadian clocks may be different from someone else’s and changes throughout your life?

Circadian clocks are different for different people. Most people’s natural circadian cycle is slightly greater than 24 hours. Some people naturally wake up early and some naturally stay up late. For example, it is natural for many teens to prefer later bedtimes and to sleep later in the morning than adults.

The rhythm and timing of the body clocks also decline with age. Neurons, or cells, in the brain that promote sleep are lost as part of normal aging. Certain conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease can also speed the loss of neurons. This makes it harder for older adults to stay asleep. Other factors, such as less physical activity or less time spent outdoors, also affect circadian rhythms. As a result, older adults usually sleep less and wake up earlier.


How To Improve Sleep and Nutrition

If you want to improve your sleep and nutrition, talking with your doctor is a good starting point. Your doctor can help identify your barriers to sleep, including potential sleep disorders, and recommend a nutrition plan that best suits your needs.

Most people can get better sleep by improving their bedroom environment and their sleep-related habits. Collectively, this is known as sleep hygiene, and it’s an important factor in making consistent sleep part of your everyday routine.

Keeping a regular sleep schedule is a major component of sleep hygiene, and many people find that it can keep them from pushing their bedtime later and later. Research has found that a late sleep schedule is correlated with a higher risk of weight gain, which makes this step a potential benefit for both sleep and nutrition.

Giving yourself plenty of time to relax and get ready for bed is another element of sleep hygiene. This includes avoiding foods and drinks, like caffeinated beverages or spicy foods, that can make it harder to get to sleep. Eating too late at night, which can throw off sleep, has also been found to be worse for people trying to lose weight.

Other sleep hygiene improvements include making sure that your bedroom is dark and quiet, avoiding screen time for an hour or more before bed, having a comfortable mattress and bedding, and trying to get daylight exposure and moderate exercise every day.