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Biology 102 - Biology

Biology 102 - Biology


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Biology 102

Biology 102: Winter 2011

Welcome to Biology 102! This term's topics include Atoms and Molecules, Cell Energetics, and Genetics.

Downloadable documents listed below are in PDF format. You will need Acrobat Reader or other PDF reader (such as Preview on the Mac) to read these documents.

Link to the Moodle portal - you can download and print the labs here.

  • Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byer, Biology: Life on Earth, Special Edition (or 8th ed.)
  • Lab packet for Bi 102 (from the Moodle portal)

Extra Credit (2-5 points each)

In addition to the extra credit opportunities listed in the syllabus, I will post interactive activities here. See your syllabus for extra credit policies. Some of these online activities require Flash player and have music or sounds.

Cellular Respiration animations (scroll down on these pages to find self-quizzes):

The Amazing Colour Changing Card Trick and The Monkey Business Illusion illustrate why it's a good idea to not distract yourself by texting or web surfing in class: psychologists have shown over and over again that we can't really multitask. Learning to focus even when you're bored is a good life skill.

Blobs.org: Atoms has good, basic information on atomic structure.

eChem Applet is an imaging tool for building 3D representations of molecules. Your syllabus has an extra credit opportunity that uses eChem.

The Basics of Life has interactive activities to help you learn about the four classes of biomolecules (this is an updated link - the one in the class notes no longer works).

How Diffusion Works and How Osmosis Works are good, comprehensible animations that help make these processes clear.

Cells Alive! has interactive cell models, animations of cell division, and lots of other resources.

Learn Genetics by the University of Utah, a terrific resource for learning the basics of genetics and current research.

Mendelian Genetics - a set of interactive tutorials that teach monohybrid, dihybrid, and X-linked genetics.

Classes begin Monday, January 3

Bio 101 lectures are held in NS 103

Bio 101 labs are held in NS 123

Labs will begin the second week of class.

No labs on MLK holiday week, but lectures will continue.

Last day to pay fees: Friday

Registration ends : Friday Jan 7

Last day to drop classes with full refund: Friday, Jan 7

Last day to drop without grade responsiblity: Friday Jan 28

Last day to drop with a W grade: Friday Feb 18

Registration for next term: Feb 21 - 25

MLK Holiday: Monday Jan 17

Final exam week: March 14 - 18

Final Exam for all Bi 100 series classes will be on Monday, March 14, 2:00 - 3:50. Locations to be announed. See the Multiple Section Exam Schedule.


BIOLOGY (BIOL)

Restricted to first-year students. Introduction, in a first-year seminar, to recent advances in genetics and cell biology, and discussion and debate concerning how these advances are changing medicine, agriculture, and other aspects of our lives.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 55. First-Year Seminar: The Roots and Flowering of Civilization: A Seminar on Plants and People. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. The focus of this first-year seminar will be on the transition from hunter-gatherer, the interchange of crops, medicinal and psychoactive plants, and organic vs. industrial farming methods.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 57. First-Year Seminar: Detecting the Future: Human Diseases and Genetic Tests. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. A first-year seminar focusing on the future of human diseases and genetic tests.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 61. First-Year Seminar: Sea Turtles: A Case Study in the Biology of Conservation. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. An examination of the biology and conservation of sea turtles, with an emphasis on how current scientific research informs conservation practices.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 62. First-Year Seminar: Mountains Beyond Mountains: Infectious Disease in the Developing World. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. In this course we will examine the challenges of treating infectious disease in the developing world, and explore the root causes of global health care inequity. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PL, GL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 64. First-Year Seminar: Modeling Fluid Flow through and around Organs and Organisms. 3 Credits.

The focus of this FYS will be on organisms living within moving fluids. The natural world is replete with examples of animals and plants whose shape influences flow to their benefit. For example, the shape of a maple seed generates lift to allow for long distance dispersal. The structure of a pinecone helps it to filter pollen from the air. A falcon's form during a dive reduces drag and allows it to reach greater speeds.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 65. First-Year Seminar: Pneumonia. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. Pneumonia will be a lens to examine a thread of history of biology and medicine. Current research to understand the condition, discover treatment and enact prevention options will be examined.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 66. First-year seminar: Evolution and the Science of Life. 3 Credits.

This interdisciplinary first-year seminar examines the roots, ideas, questions and applications of evolutionary biology. What is evolution, how does it work, and how do we study it? How did modern scientific theories of evolution emerge from the traditions of natural philosophy and natural history? How does studying evolution inform us about adaptation, biological diversity, human origins, disease, aging, sex and culture? First-year seminar.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 81. First-Year Seminar: Intuition, Initiative and Industry: Biologists as Entrepreneurs. 3 Credits.

Successful biologists are necessarily entrepreneurs. This course will explore the parallels between biology and entrepreneurship. We follow these steps: generating ideas, marketing those ideas, testing them, and producing a product.
Gen Ed: CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 89. First Year Seminar: Special Topics. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. This is a special topics course content will vary.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 101. Principles of Biology. 3 Credits.

Open to all undergraduates. This course is the prerequisite to most higher courses in biology. An introduction to the fundamental principles of biology, including cell structure, chemistry, and function genetics evolution adaptation and ecology. (See department concerning Advanced Placement credit.) Three lecture hours a week. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 101L. Introductory Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

An examination of the fundamental concepts in biology with emphasis on scientific inquiry. Biological systems will be analyzed through experimentation, dissection, and observation. Three laboratory hours a week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 101L and BIOL 102L.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 101.
Gen Ed: CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 102L. Introductory Biology Laboratory with Research. 1 Credit.

This Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) lab introduces students to the process of science through collaboration on a research project, learning relevant techniques and scientific skills, and presenting research results. Three laboratory hours a week. This lab can be taken in place of BIOL 101L. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 101L and BIOL 102L.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 101.
Gen Ed: CI, EE- Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 113. Issues in Modern Biology. 3 Credits.

For students not majoring in biology. Students who have taken any other course in the Department of Biology may not register for this course. Recent advances in the understanding of major principles in biology. Emphasis on genetics and medicine. Does not count as a course in the major. Three lecture hours a week.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 115. Reasoning with Data: Navigating a Quantitative World. 3 Credits.

Students will use mathematical and statistical methods to address societal problems, make personal decisions, and reason critically about the world. Authentic contexts may include voting, health and risk, digital humanities, finance, and human behavior. This course does not count as credit towards the psychology or neuroscience majors.
Gen Ed: QR.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MATH 115, PSYC 115, STOR 115.

BIOL 117. Pre-Health Thrive-1 Considering Health Professions. 1 Credit.

This course provides exposure to a variety of health professions, emphasizing ways health care teams work together (interprofessional interactions). Self-assessments will be utilized to examine articulation between strengths and interests and the skills and competencies required in healthcare careers. Throughout the course, practitioners will provide insight into their professions such as allopathic and osteopathic medicine, podiatric medicine, veterinary medicine, optometry, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, social work, and occupational therapy. Does not count toward major.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 118. Pre-Health Thrive-2 Pursuing Health Professions. 1 Credit.

This course will provide guidance to plan a path toward a profession of interest by selecting appropriate course, service, and research opportunities to include in a portfolio useful in completing applications. Application preparation and interview skills will be addressed for health professions programs such as allopathic and osteopathic medicine, podiatric medicine, veterinary medicine, optometry, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, social work, occupational therapy, and many others. This does not count as a course in the major.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 150. First-Year Launch: The Creativity of Science, or Scientific Thinking in Biology. 3 Credits.

This course provides an introduction to the dynamic, creative, and open-ended process that is the scientific method. Through the analysis of news reports and primary scientific literature (covering a range of socially relevant biology topics), students will learn how to understand and interpret data, gain critical analysis skills, and begin to "think like scientists." Enrollment restricted to first-years and transfer students in their first year at UNC (transfer students, email instructor to be enrolled).
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 159. Prehistoric Life. 3 Credits.

Fossils and the origin and evolution of life, including micro- and macroevolution, mass extinctions, the evolution of dinosaurs and humans, and scientific perspectives on multicultural creationism.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 159.

BIOL 190. Special Topics in Biology at an Introductory Level. 3 Credits.

Special topics in biology at an introductory level. This course does not count as a course in the biology major.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 190L. Laboratory in Special Topics in Biology at an Introductory Level. 1 Credit.

Laboratory in special topics in biology at an introductory level. This course does not count as a course in the biology major.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 195. Introduction to Research. 1 Credit.

The research work must involve at least four hours per week of mentored research in a campus research laboratory. Does not count as a course in the major.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 201. Ecology and Evolution. 4 Credits.

Principles governing the ecology and evolution of populations, communities, and ecosystems, including speciation, population genetics, population regulation, and community and ecosystem structure and dynamics. Three lecture hours and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102 A grade of C or better in BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102 required.
Gen Ed: PL, QI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 202. Molecular Biology and Genetics. 4 Credits.

Structure and function of nucleic acids, principles of inheritance, gene expression, and genetic engineering. Three lecture hours and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102 A grade of C or better in BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102 is required.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 205. Cellular and Developmental Biology. 4 Credits.

Fundamentals of cell structure and activity in relation to special functions, metabolism, reproduction, embryogenesis, and with an introduction to the experimental analysis of cell physiology and development. Three lectures and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202 a grade of C- or better in BIOL 202 is required.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 211. Introduction to Research in Biology. 3 Credits.

Seminar based on current investigations at UNC. Students examine sources of scientific information, explore the logic of investigation, and develop proposals. Students with BIOL 211 credit may take a maximum of three hours of BIOL 395.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite Not open to seniors.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 213. Evolution and Life. 3 Credits.

For students not majoring in biology. Introduction to the scientific study of biological evolution and its applications. The mechanisms that cause evolution and general patterns of evolution during the history of life. Does not count as a course in the major.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 214H. Mathematics of Evolutionary Processes. 3 Credits.

This Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) class teaches students how scientists use mathematics to approach questions in evolutionary biology and ecology. Students learn both biological and mathematical concepts, taught using an array of pedagogical approaches. There are two group projects over the course of the semester, one involving the development of an original mathematical model. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 214H and BIOL 224H.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and MATH 231 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 217. The Physician's Garden. 3 Credits.

First-year transfer students only. This course combines human cell biology and classical botany elaborating the mode of action of plant metabolites in humans. Hands-on experience includes visits to a pharmaceutical company, a botanical garden, and maintaining the campus medicinal garden.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 221. Seafood Forensics. 3 Credits.

In this Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) class, students will use forensic sciences (primarily DNA barcoding technology) to quantify seafood mislabeling. Students will learn the importance of food labeling as well as its impact on marine ecosystems and human health.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101 corequisite, BIOL 221L permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 221L. Seafood Forensics Laboratory. 1 Credit.

In this Course-based Undergraduate Research (CURE) lab, students will use forensic sciences (primarily DNA barcoding technology) to quantify seafood mislabeling. Students will perform experiments based on hypotheses formulated in the co-requisite lecture course.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101 corequisite, BIOL 221 permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Gen Ed: EE- Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 222. Introduction to Programming with Biological Data. 3 Credits.

All subdisciplines of biology deal with data. As the amount of data increases, automated methods of reading, manipulating and displaying data are necessary. This course covers the basics of practical computer programming to deal with this biological data. The emphasis is on learning techniques of reading, manipulating, analyzing and visualizing biological data.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 224H. The Mathematics of Life. 3 Credits.

An accessible treatment of classic mathematical applications to molecules, cells, development, genetics, ecology, and evolution, complementing the material taught in BIOL 201, 202, and 205. Three lecture hours a week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 224H and BIOL 214H.
Requisites: Prerequisite, MATH 231 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite Corequisite, BIOL 224L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 224L. The Mathematics of Life Laboratory. 1 Credit.

An accessible treatment of classic mathematical applications to molecules, cells, development, genetics, ecology, and evolution, complementing the material taught in BIOL 201, 202, and 205. This lab component is programming-based.
Requisites: Prerequisite, MATH 231 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite corequisite, BIOL 224H.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 226. Mathematical Methods for Quantitative Biology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to quantitative biology with emphasis on applications that use mathematical modeling, linear algebra, differential equations, and computer programming. Applications may include neural networks, biomechanics, dispersion, and systems of biochemical reactions. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 or 202, and MATH 232 or 283. Corequisite, BIOL 226L.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 226L. Mathematical Methods for Quantitative Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Introduction to quantitative biology with emphasis on applications that use mathematical modeling, linear algebra, differential equations, and computer programming. Applications may include neural networks, biomechanics, dispersion, and systems of biochemical reactions. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 or 202, and MATH 232 or 283. Corequisite, BIOL 226.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 251. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3 Credits.

This course relates the way in which the human body is constructed to the way in which it functions and is controlled. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 251 and BIOL 252. Only offered through Continuing Studies.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 251L. Human Physiology Virtual Laboratory. 1 Credit.

This is a course of simulated laboratory measurements exercises using typical data derived from actual physiological measurements on human subjects. Only offered though continuing education. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 251L and BIOL 252.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 251 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 252. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3 Credits.

One biology course over 200 recommended. An introductory but comprehensive course emphasizing the relationship between form and function of the body's organ systems. Three lecture hours each week. Students may not receive credit for BIOL 252 and BIOL 251 or BIOL 251L or BIOL 352 or BIOL 353. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 corequisite, BIOL 252L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 252L. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Organ level human structure and function. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L Corequisite, BIOL 252 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the pre- or corequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 253L. Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

In-depth study of physiological mechanisms by hands-on experimentation. Students gain experience in collecting, analyzing, and presenting human physiological data.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 252 and 252L corequisite, BIOL 253.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 253. Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3 Credits.

In-depth study of physiological mechanisms at molecular, cellular, and system levels of organization. Students will develop analytical and problem solving skills. Intended for preprofessional students requiring a second semester of anatomy and physiology. Can be used as an allied science elective but not a biology elective course for the major or minor.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 252 and 252L Corequisite, BIOL 253L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 255. The Evolution of Extraordinary Adaptations. 3 Credits.

In this Course-based Undergraduate Research (CURE) class, students will learn how to do science. This includes formulating a question, collecting data, and statistical analysis, to presenting research results. Students will test new hypotheses in ecology and evolution for spectacular adaptations in the Venus flytrap and the scale-eating pupfish using field and laboratory experiments and observations. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite,BIOL 101 and 101L a grade of B or better in BIOL 101 is required. Corequisite, BIOL 255L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 255L. The Evolution of Extraordinary Adaptions Laboratory. 1 Credit.

In this Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) lab, students will learn how to do science. This includes formulating a question, collecting data, and statistical analysis, to presenting research results. Students will test new hypotheses in ecology and evolution for spectacular adaptations in the Venus flytrap and the scale-eating pupfish using field and laboratory experiments and observations.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101 and 101L corequisite, BIOL 255.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 256. Mountain Biodiversity. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the new field of biodiversity studies, which integrates approaches from systematics, ecology, evolution, and conservation. Taught at off-campus field station.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 256.

BIOL 271. Plant Biology. 3 Credits.

Designed for students with an interest in natural sciences. An introduction to the principles of botany including structure, function, reproduction, heredity, environmental relationships, evolution and classification of plants. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L corequisite, BIOL 271L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 271L. Plant Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Designed for students with an interest in natural sciences. An introduction to the principles of botany including structure, function, reproduction, heredity, environmental relationships, evolution and classification of plants. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L corequisite, BIOL 271.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 272. Local Flora. 4 Credits.

Open to all undergraduates. North Carolina's flora: recognition, identification, classification, evolution, history, economics, plant families, ecology, and conservation. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and 101L or 102L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 272.

BIOL 273. Horticulture. 4 Credits.

The cultivation, propagation and breeding of plants, with emphasis on ornamentals. Control of environmental factors for optimal plant growth. Laboratory exercises include plant culture, propagation, pruning, and identification of common ornamentals. Two lecture, one recitation, and three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 274. Plant Diversity. 3 Credits.

Survey of major groups of plants emphasizing interrelationships and comparative morphology. Culturing techniques and field work included. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L corequisite, BIOL 274L.
Gen Ed: PX, EE- Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 274L. Plant Diversity Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Survey of major groups of plants emphasizing interrelationships and comparative morphology. Culturing techniques and field work included. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L corequisite, BIOL 274.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 277. Vertebrate Field Zoology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the diversity, ecology, behavior, and conservation of living vertebrates. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 277L. Vertebrate Field Zoology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Study of the diversity of vertebrates in the field. Three laboratory and field hours a week, including one or two weekend trips.
Requisites: Corequisite, BIOL 277 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the corequisite.
Gen Ed: EE- Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 278. Animal Behavior. 3 Credits.

Introduction to animal behavior with emphases on the diversity and adaptation of behavior in natural conditions. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 278L. Animal Behavior Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Techniques of observation and experiments in animal behavior. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 278.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 279. Seminar in Organismal Biology. 2-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate course devoted to consideration of pertinent aspects of a selected organismal biological discipline.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 279L. Topics in Organismal Biology Laboratory. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate laboratory course covering aspects of a specific organismal biological discipline. Laboratory reports will be required. Research work is not included in this course.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 290. Special Topics in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate seminar course devoted to consideration of pertinent aspects of a selected biological discipline. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PL.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 290L. Special Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate laboratory course covering aspects of a specific biological discipline. Laboratory reports will be required. Research work is not included in this course.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 6 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 291. Teaching Apprentice in Biology. 1 Credit.

Permission required. 3.0 or higher in course taught. Experience includes preparations, demonstrations, assistance, and attendance at weekly meetings. Apprentices will not be involved in any aspects of grading. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 3 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 292. Teaching Assistant in Biology. 2 Credits.

Permission required. 3.0 in course taught. Experience includes weekly meetings, preparations, demonstrations, instruction, and grading. May be repeated for credit. Six hours per week.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 6 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 293. Undergraduate Internship in Biology. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Biology majors only. The sponsored, off-campus work must involve at least 135 hours. Does not count as a course in the major.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202.
Gen Ed: EE- Academic Internship.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 294. Service Learning in Biology: APPLES. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. APPLES service-learning component for students enrolled in biology courses. Does not count as a course in the major. Honors version available
Gen Ed: EE- Service Learning.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 296. Directed Readings in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Extensive and intensive reading of the literature of a specific biological field directly supervised by a member of the biology faculty. Written reports on the readings, or a literature review paper will be required. Cannot be used as a course toward the major. Honors version available
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 350. Oceanography. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, major in a natural science or two courses in natural sciences. Studies origin of ocean basins, seawater chemistry and dynamics, biological communities, sedimentary record, and oceanographic history. Term paper. Students lacking science background should see MASC 101. Students may not receive credit for both MASC 101 and MASC 401.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 401, ENVR 417, GEOL 403.

BIOL 390. Special Topics in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Special topics course. Content and topics will vary each semester.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 395. Undergraduate Research in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Majors only. Hands-on research in the laboratory and/or field involving the study of biology. Requires written paper (first semester) or research poster (second semester). Up to five total hours counts as a lecture course. Six total hours counts as a biology elective with laboratory. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202.
Gen Ed: EE- Mentored Research.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 6 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 402. Infectious Disease in the Developing World. 3 Credits.

We will explore the challenges of infectious disease in the developing world, focusing on tuberculosis, HIV, and malaria. We will also examine the economics of different approaches to health care.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 409L. Art and Science: Merging Printmaking and Biology. 1 Credit.

Permission of the instructor. This is the lab component of ARTS 409 that brings together art majors and science majors to combine theory and practical learning in a biology laboratory, which focusing primarily on microscopic life and biological motion, with printmaking. Does not count as an elective towards the biology major.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201, BIOL 202, or a 200-level ARTS course corequisite, ARTS 409.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 410. Principles and Methods of Teaching Biology. 4 Credits.

This Makerspace designed course will develop the knowledge and skills teachers need to implement inquiry-based biology instruction: rich, conceptual knowledge of biology and mastery of inquiry-based teaching methods. Does not count as a laboratory course.
Requisites: Prerequisites, two of the three biology core courses: BIOL 201, 202, and/or 205.
Gen Ed: EE- Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 421L. Microbiology Laboratory with Research. 2 Credits.

Sterile technique, bacterial growth, physiology, genetics and diversity, and bacteriophage. Research in bacterial genetics.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 422.
Gen Ed: EE- Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 422. Microbiology. 3 Credits.

Bacterial form, growth, physiology, genetics, and diversity. Bacterial interactions including symbiosis and pathogenesis (animal and plant). Use of bacteria in biotechnology. Brief introduction to viruses.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 422L. Microbiology Laboratory. 1-2 Credits.

Sterile technique, bacterial growth and physiology, bacterial genetics, bacteriophage, and bacterial diversity.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 422.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 423. Genetics Experiments. 3 Credits.

This is a Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) combination course/lab. Using genetics and genome biology, students will study DNA repair and chromosome stability using yeast as a model system in a cutting edge research laboratory.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202 corequisite, BIOL 423L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 423L. Genetics Experiments Laboratory. 1 Credit.

This is a Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) combination course/lab. Using genetics and genome biology, students will study DNA repair and chromosome stability using yeast as a model system in a cutting edge research laboratory.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202 corequisite BIOL 423.
Gen Ed: EE- Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 424. Microbial Ecology. 3 Credits.

Class emphasizes the creativity of the scientific process, using primary scientific literature as a framework to discuss topics in microbial ecology, including microbial diversity, distributions, genomics, and co-evolution host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions nutrient cycling and degradation of plant matter and biofuels.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 425. Human Genetics. 3 Credits.

Pedigree analysis, inheritance of complex traits, DNA damage and repair, human genome organization, DNA fingerprinting, the genes of hereditary diseases, chromosomal aberrations, cancer and oncogenes, immunogenetics and tissue transplants. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 426. Biology of Blood Diseases. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the biology and pathophysiology of blood and the molecular mechanisms of some human diseases: anemias leukemias hemorrhagic, thrombotic, and vascular disorders and HIV disease/AIDS. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PATH 426.

BIOL 427. Human Diversity and Population Genetics. 3 Credits.

Specifically, it addresses questions of human origins, population structure, and genetic diversity. This course investigates the facts, methods, and theories behind human population genetics, evolution, and diversity.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisites, BIOL 201 and 202 permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 428. Biology of Viruses. 3 Credits.

Historically viruses are microscopic disease-causing vectors that make headlines around the world as they emerge, spread, and evolve. More recently, viruses are being used as therapeutic agents to treat disease. The course will provide a historical perspective of viruses past to present. Students will learn virus history, molecular biology of viruses and infection, discovery and treatment of emerging viruses, and the impact of viruses on society.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 430. Introduction to Biological Chemistry. 3 Credits.

The study of cellular processes including catalysts, metabolism, bioenergetics, and biochemical genetics. The structure and function of biological macromolecules involved in these processes is emphasized. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and CHEM 262 or 262H.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: CHEM 430.

BIOL 431. Biological Physics. 3 Credits.

How diffusion, entropy, electrostatics, and hydrophobicity generate order and force in biology. Topics include DNA manipulation, intracellular transport, cell division, molecular motors, single molecule biophysics techniques, nerve impulses, neuroscience.
Requisites: Prerequisites, PHYS 116 and 117, or PHYS 118 and 119.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PHYS 405, BMME 435.

BIOL 434. Molecular Biology. 3 Credits.

Advanced studies in molecular biology from an experimental approach.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and CHEM 261 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 436. Plant Genetics, Development, and Biotechnology. 3 Credits.

Recent advances in plant molecular biology, genetics, development, and biotechnology, and their potential relevance to agriculture. The course will include lectures, reading and discussions of papers from the primary literature, and student presentations. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 271 or 202 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 439. Introduction to Signal Transduction. 3 Credits.

This course presents an introduction to signal transduction pathways used by higher eukaryotes. Several signaling paradigms will be discussed to illustrate the ways that cells transmit information. Three lecture hours per week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 440. Stem Cell Biology. 3 Credits.

Stem cells are important for a number of biological processes and have become topics of fascination in popular science and culture. This course will build from a solid foundation of genetics, cell, and developmental biology to give students a broad appreciation of stem cells in development, aging, disease, and bioengineering. Students will understand key concepts in stem cell biology like potential and immortality as well as understand stem cells' promise and limitations in therapeutic settings.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 441. Vertebrate Embryology. 3 Credits.

Principles of development with special emphasis on gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, germ layer formation, organogenesis, and mechanisms, with experimental analysis of developmental processes. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 or 252 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 441L. Vertebrate Embryology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Descriptive and some experimental aspects of vertebrate development. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 441.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 442. Self Assembly in Cell Biology. 3 Credits.

In this class, we will read and discuss together the primary literature to understand how self-assembly in cell biology is harnessed in normal cells and goes awry in disease. A secondary goal will be for students to develop numeracy in cell biology so as to understand cell processes in a quantitative framework.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 and one additional course in biology numbered above BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 443. Developmental Biology. 3 Credits.

An experimental approach to an understanding of animals and plants. The approach covers developmental processes, molecular, genetic, cell biological and biochemical techniques, with an emphasis on the molecules involved in development.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 205 and CHEM 261 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 444. Molecular Basis of Disease. 3 Credits.

This course investigates the biological causes behind human diseases via critical thinking and analysis of experimental research outcomes. It approaches topics from a research perspective similar to a graduate seminar. Topics covered include genetic/inherited diseases, metabolic diseases, immunological disorders, infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 445. Cancer Biology. 3 Credits.

Selected examples will be used to illustrate how basic research allows us to understand the mechanistic basis of cancer and how these insights offer hope for new treatments.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 446. Unsolved Problems in Cellular Biology. 3 Credits.

A survey of areas of current interest in cytology, embryology, and genetics with concentration on problems that remain unsolved but that appear to be near solution. Three lecture and discussion hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 447. Cell Biology: Beyond Core Basics. 1 Credit.

Modern methods in cell biology.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 co-requisite, BIOL 447L Required preparation, a grade of C+ or better in BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 447L. Cell Biology: Beyond Core Basics Laboratory. 3 Credits.

Modern methods in cell biology lab.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 co-requisite, BIOL 447 Required preparation, a grade of C+ or better in BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 448. Advanced Cell Biology. 3 Credits.

An advanced course in cell biology, with emphasis on the biochemistry and molecular biology of cell structure and function. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 449. Introduction to Immunology. 3 Credits.

This course provides a general overview of the evolution, organization, and function of the immune system. Instruction will be inquiry-based with extensive use of informational and instructional technology tools.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MCRO 449.

BIOL 450. Neurobiology. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, BIOL 205. Survey of neurobiological principles in vertebrates and invertebrates, including development, morphology, physiology, and molecular mechanisms. Three lectures a week.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 451. Comparative Physiology. 3 Credits.

An examination of the physiology of animals using a comparative approach. Both invertebrate and vertebrate animals are discussed in order to elucidate general principles.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L, and PHYS 104 or 114 or 116, and PHYS 105 or 115 or 117.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 451L. Comparative Physiology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

The fundamental principles of physiology are explored using physical models, animal experiments, and non invasive experiments on humans, reinforcing the understanding of concepts presented in lecture.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 451.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 452. Marine Microbial Symbioses: Exploring How Microbial Interactions Affect Ecosystems and Human Health. 3 Credits.

Course material covers host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions found in marine ecosystems, including beneficial and parasitic relationships among viruses, microbes, marine animals, and humans. Limited to upper-level undergraduate science majors and graduate students.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 446.

BIOL 453. Molecular Control of Metabolism and Metabolic Disease. 3 Credits.

This class will cover the small molecules, enzymes, signaling proteins, and pathways that control metabolic processes and that are altered in metabolic disease. We will generally take an experimental approach to explore and understand the fundamental aspects of metabolism.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and CHEM 261 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 454. Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Credits.

The roles of mutation, migration, genetic drift, and natural selection in the evolution of the genotype and phenotype. Basic principles are applied to biological studies. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 455. Behavioral Neuroscience. 3 Credits.

The neurobiological basis of animal behavior at the level of single cells, neural circuits, sensory systems, and organisms. Lecture topics range from principles of cellular neurobiology to ethological field studies.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 456. Marine Phytoplankton. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. For junior and senior science majors or graduate students. Biology of marine photosynthetic protists and cyanobacteria. Phytoplankton evolution, biodiversity, structure, function, biogeochemical cycles and genomics. Harmful algal blooms, commercial products, and climate change. Three lecture/practical session hours per week.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 444, ENEC 444.

BIOL 457. Marine Biology. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, BIOL 201 or 475. A survey of plants and animals that live in the sea: characteristics of marine habitats, organisms, and the ecosystems will be emphasized. Marine environment, the organisms involved, and the ecological systems that sustain them.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 442.

BIOL 458. Sensory Neurobiology and Behavior. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, BIOL 205. An exploration of sensory systems and sensory ecology in animals. Topics range from neurophysiological function of sensory receptors to the role of sensory cues in animal behavior.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 459. Field Biology at Highlands Biological Station. 1-4 Credits.

Content varies. Summer field biology at the Highlands Biological Station focuses on the special faunal and floristic processes and patterns characteristic of the southern Appalachian mountains. Five lecture and three to five laboratory and field hours per week, depending on credit.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 8 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 461. Fundamentals of Ecology. 4 Credits.

Students will develop a comprehensive understanding of the field of ecology, including modern and emerging trends in ecology. They will develop literacy in the fundamental theories and models that capture ecological processes emphasis will also be placed on the relevance of ecology and ecological research for human society.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 461.

BIOL 462. Marine Ecology. 3 Credits.

Survey of the ecological processes that structure marine communities in a range of coastal habitats. Course emphasizes experimental approaches to addressing basic and applied problems in marine systems.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 475.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 440.

BIOL 463. Field Ecology. 4 Credits.

Application of ecological theory to terrestrial and/or freshwater systems. Lectures emphasize quantitative properties of interacting population and communities within these systems. Required laboratory teaches methodology applicable for analysis of these systems. Projects emphasize experimental testing of ecological theory in the field. Two lecture and six field hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Gen Ed: EE- Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 464. Global Change Ecology. 3 Credits.

Responses of plants, animals, and communities to climate and other global changes, emphasizing ecology, physiology, behavior, and evolution. Investigation of past responses and tools for predicting future responses.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 465. Global Biodiversity and Macroecology. 3 Credits.

We will explore global patterns of diversity of plants, animals, fungi, and microbes, and the insights gained by taking a statistical approach to describing these and other broad-scale ecological patterns.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 469. Behavioral Ecology. 3 Credits.

BIOL 278 recommended but not required and can be taken concurrently. Behavior as an adaptation to the environment. Evolution of behavioral strategies for survival and reproduction. Optimality and games that animals play. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 471. Evolutionary Mechanisms. 3 Credits.

Introduction to mechanisms of evolutionary change, including natural selection, population genetics, life history evolution, speciation, and micro- and macroevolutionary trends. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202 Corequisite, BIOL 471L Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 471L. Evolutionary Mechanisms Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Introduction to mechanisms of evolutionary change, including natural selection, population genetics, life history evolution, speciation, and micro- and macroevolutionary trends. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202 Corequisite, BIOL 471 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 472. Introduction to Plant Taxonomy. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the taxonomy of vascular plants. Principles of classification, identification, nomenclature, and description. Laboratory and field emphasis on phytography, families, description, identification, and classification of vascular plant species. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 271 and/or 272 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 473L. Mammalian Morphology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Laboratory includes an opportunity for independent investigation of anatomy through dissection, virtual models, and/or 3D modeling.
Requisites: Corequisite, BIOL 473.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 473. Mammalian Morphology and Development. 3 Credits.

An in-depth examination of the anatomical, evolutionary, and developmental history of mammals, including humans. Particular attention will be given to nervous, musculoskeletal and craniofacial structures.
Requisites: Corequisite, BIOL 473L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 474. Evolution of Vertebrate Life. 3 Credits.

Evolutionary history of the vertebrates. Emphasis on anatomical, physiological, behavioral adaptations accompanying major transitions: the move from water to land, the development of complex integrating systems. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 474L. Vertebrate Structure and Evolution Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Vertebrate comparative anatomy of organ systems and their evolution with emphasis on human anatomy. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 474.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 475. Biology of Marine Animals. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, one additional course in biology. An introduction to the major animal phyla emphasizing form, function, behavior, ecology, evolution, and classification of marine invertebrates. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L co-requisite, BIOL 475L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 475L. Biology of Marine Animals Laboratory. 1 Credit.

This lab serves as an introduction to the major animal phyla emphasizing form, function, behavior, ecology, evolution, and classification of marine invertebrates.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L co-requisite, BIOL 475.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 476. Avian Biology. 3 Credits.

A study of avian evolution, anatomy, physiology, neurobiology, behavior, biogeography, and ecology. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and BIOL 101L or BIOL 102L corequisite, BIOL 476L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 476L. Avian Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Techniques for the study of avian evolution, ecology, and behavior with emphasis on North Carolina birds. Three laboratory or field hours a week, including one or two weekend field trips.
Requisites: Corequisite, BIOL 476.
Gen Ed: EE- Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 479. Topics in Organismal Biology at an Advanced Level. 3 Credits.

Topics in organismal biology at an advanced undergraduate or graduate student level.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 479L. Laboratory in Organismal Biology: Advanced Topics. 1-2 Credits.

Laboratory in topics in organismal biology for advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 480. Discoveries in Prevention and Cure of Infectious Disease in London. 3 Credits.

This is a Burch summer honors course taught in London. We will examine three major discoveries relating to infectious disease (vaccination, transmission via water, and antibiotics) and one major epidemic (plague) which led to no scientific response and explore how the thought of the time influenced scientific research. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 490. Advanced Topics in Biology. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Content will vary. Three lecture and discussion hours per week by visiting and resident faculty. Honors version available
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 495. Undergraduate Research in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Biology majors only. A continuation of the hands-on research in the laboratory and/or field that was started in BIOL 395. A final written paper is required each term. May be repeated. Does not count as a course in the major. Pass/fail credit only. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 395.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 501. Ethical Issues in Life Sciences. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. A consideration and discussion of ethical issues in life sciences including cloning humans, genetic engineering, stem cell research, organ transplantation, and animal experimentation. Counts as a course numbered below 400 for biology major requirements.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 514. Evolution and Development. 3 Credits.

The course examines the mechanisms by which organisms are built and evolve. In particular, it examines how novel and complex traits and organisms arise from interactions among genes and cells. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201, 202, and 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 523. Sex Differences in Human Disease. 3 Credits.

Many human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and auto-immune disease differ in their pathology and treatment between males and females. The class will first cover the hormonal and genetic mechanisms of sex determination, and then build on this knowledge to understand sexual disparities in the development and potential treatments of disease. The course will be based on primary literature and discussions of experimental evidence.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202 or 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 524. Strategies of Host-Microbe Interactions. 3 Credits.

There is great variety in how microbes colonize and live with their hosts. The course will summarize strategies of pathogenicity, symbiosis, commensalism and mutualism. Evolutionary, cellular, and molecular aspects will be analyzed.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Gen Ed: CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 525. Analysis and Interpretation of Sequence-Based Functional Genomics Experiments. 3 Credits.

Practical introduction to functional genomics experiments, such as RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, and computational techniques for the analysis of these data derived from high-throughput sequencing. Interpretation of results will be stressed. Basic knowledge of molecular biology, beginning level computational skills, and familiarity with basic statistical concepts are expected. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, COMP 110 or 116, and STOR 155 corequisite, BIOL 525L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 525L. Analysis and Interpretation of Sequence-Based Functional Genomics Experiments Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Computer lab will provide students with experience using computational software for analysis of functional genomics experiments. Basic knowledge of molecular biology, beginning level computer skills, and familiarity with basic statistical concepts are expected. One laboratory hour a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, COMP 110 or 116, and STOR 155 corequisite, BIOL 525.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 526. Computational Genetics. 4 Credits.

Introduction to computational principles underlying sequence alignment and phylogenetics, genome assembly and annotation, analysis of gene function, and other bioinformatics applications. Includes a one-hour computer laboratory. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, STOR 155, and one of BIOL 226, COMP 110, or COMP 116 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 527. Seminar in Quantitative Biology. 3 Credits.

Seminar in quantitative biology for advanced students. The course counts as a quantitative biology course for the major.
Requisites: Prerequisites, COMP 110 or COMP 116, and MATH 232 or MATH 283 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 527L. Laboratory in Quantitative Biology. 1 Credit.

Laboratory in quantitative biology for advanced students. The laboratory will involve mathematical analysis and modeling of biological systems and processes.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 4 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 528. Quantitative Personalized Genomics. 3 Credits.

Personalized medicine, specifically using genetic markers to improve outcomes and minimize side effects (pharmacogenomics) requires the development and application of advanced computational and quantitative techniques. Students will develop computational skills to address contemporary genomic and statistical problems.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and one of COMP 116, COMP 110, BIOL 226/BIOL 226L Corequisite, BIOL 528L permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 528L. Quantitative Personalized Genomics Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Personalized medicine, specifically using genetic markers to improve outcomes and minimize side effects (pharmacogenomics) requires the development and application of advanced computational and quantitative techniques. Students will develop computational skills to address contemporary genomic and statistical problems in a lab setting.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and one of COMP 116, COMP 110, BIOL 226/BIOL 226L Corequisite, BIOL 528 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 529. Clinical and Counseling Aspects of Human Genetics. 3 Credits.

Topics in clinical genetics including pedigree analysis, counseling/ethical issues, genetic testing, screening, and issues in human research. Taught in a small group format. Active student participation is expected.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 425 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 635.

BIOL 532. Recent Discoveries in Molecular Biology. 3 Credits.

This course examines recent insights into molecular and cellular processes obtained through modern experimental approaches. Extensive reading of primary literature, discussed in a seminar format.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, and either BIOL 205 or a 400-level BIOL course Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 534. Mathematical Modeling in the Life Sciences. 3 Credits.

Requires some knowledge of computer programming. Model validation and numerical simulations using ordinary, partial, stochastic, and delay differential equations. Applications to the life sciences may include muscle physiology, biological fluid dynamics, neurobiology, molecular regulatory networks, and cell biology.
Requisites: Prerequisites, MATH 383, and 347.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MATH 564.

BIOL 535. Molecular Biology Techniques. 4 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Recommended preparation, BIOL 434. Experiments with bacterial phage, nucleic acid isolation and properties, recombinant DNA techniques, and DNA sequencing. Additional hours in laboratory will be necessary to complete assignments.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 537. Biotechnology and Synthetic Biology. 3 Credits.

Recent advances in biotechnology and synthetic biology, and their potential relevance to medicine, agriculture, and engineering. The course will include lectures, reading and discussions of papers from the primary literature, and student projects and presentations.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 542. Light Microscopy for the Biological Sciences. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Introduction to various types of light microscopy, digital and video imaging techniques, and their application in biological sciences.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 for undergraduates.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 543. Cardiovascular Biology. 3 Credits.

An experimental approach to understanding cardiovascular development, function, and disease. It covers cardiovascular development (heart, blood vasculature, lymphatic vasculature) and cardiovascular function as linked to selected diseases. Focus on molecular, genetic, cell biological, and biochemical techniques used to study the cardiovascular system, with an emphasis on the genes and signaling pathways involved in cardiovascular development and disease. Most topics will be paired with a research paper from the primary literature. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 544L. Laboratory in Diseases of the Cytoskeleton. 3 Credits.

This laboratory course offers students the chance to engage in cutting-edge biochemical and cell biological research related to ongoing cytoskeletal research projects in the labs of two UNC faculty members. The course is composed of lectures and laboratory research. Students will become involved in all scientific processes: analysis of prior work, hypothesis generation and testing, data analysis and quantitation, and the presentation of data and conclusions.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 205 and CHEM 430 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 545. Exploring Brain, Gut, and Immunity. 3 Credits.

The course will explore topics that relate to how the brain and the gut communicate with one another. The course will also examine the connection between the brain-gut axis to the immune system and the microbiota at a molecular, cellular, and organismal level. Students will survey these emerging research topics and critically think, critique, and understand the experimental evidence for what we understand today about the gut and brain relationship. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 547. Synaptic Plasticity: Analysis of Primary Literature. 3 Credits.

In this highly interactive, small-group course, we will read a series of scientific papers that elegantly demonstrate molecular events that are fundamental to synaptic plasticity, a key mechanism of learning and memory. Students will become familiar with this exciting neuroscience topic, and also learn how to interpret experimental data and read papers critically and objectively. We will also think about the future experiments suggested by each paper we read.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 551. Comparative Biomechanics. 3 Credits.

The structure and function of organisms in relation to the principles of fluid mechanics and solid mechanics.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and 101L, or 102L, and PHYS 104, or 114, or 116, or 118.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 552. Behavioral Endocrinology. 3 Credits.

Undergraduates need permission of the instructor to enroll. The study of the interactions among hormones, the brain, and behavior from how hormones shape the development and expression of behaviors to how behavioral interactions regulate endocrine physiology.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 553. Mathematical and Computational Models in Biology. 3 Credits.

This course introduces analytical, computational, and statistical techniques, such as discrete models, numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and likelihood functions, to explore various fields of biology.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202, MATH 231, and either MATH 232 or STOR 155 Co-requisite, BIOL 553L/MATH 553L permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MATH 553.

BIOL 553L. Mathematical and Computational Models in Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

This lab introduces analytical, computational, and statistical techniques, such as discrete models, numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and likelihood functions, to explore various fields of biology.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202, MATH 231, and either MATH 232 or STOR 155 Co-requisite, BIOL 553/MATH 553 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MATH 553L.

BIOL 554. Introduction to Computational Neuroscience. 3 Credits.

This course covers various mathematical tools and techniques for modeling the various elements and phenomena that comprise the nervous system and brain.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 or 202 MATH 231 and one of BIOL 226, COMP 110, or COMP 116 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites .
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 555. Paleobotany: An Introduction to the Past History of Plants. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the fossil record of plants, investigating how plants originated and changed through geological time to produce the modern flora. Both macrofossils and microfossils will be considered. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, and one other BIOL course above 200 corequisite, BIOL 555L permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Gen Ed: EE- Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 555.

BIOL 555L. Paleobotany: An Introduction to the Past History of Plants Laboratory. 1 Credit.

The laboratory involves learning how to locate, collect, prepare, and analyze fossil plants it also provides fossils that illustrate topics covered in lecture. Students will be involved in field trips to fossil sites and museums to learn about fossil curation and display of fossils for public education. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and one other BIOL course above 200 corequisite, BIOL 555.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 561. Ecological Plant Geography. 3 Credits.

Description of the major vegetation types of the world including their distribution, structure, and dynamics. The principal causes for the distribution of plant species and communities, such as climate, soils, and history will be discussed.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101 or GEOG 110 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 562. Statistics for Environmental Scientists. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the application of quantitative and statistical methods in environmental science, including environmental monitoring, assessment, threshold exceedance, risk assessment, and environmental decision making.
Requisites: Prerequisite, STOR 155.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 562.

BIOL 563. Statistical Analysis in Ecology and Evolution. 4 Credits.

Application of modern statistical analysis and data modeling in ecological and evolutionary research. Emphasis is on computer-intensive methods and model-based approaches. Familiarity with standard parametic statistics is assumed.
Requisites: Prerequisites, MATH 231 and STOR 151 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 563.

BIOL 565. Conservation Biology. 3 Credits.

The application of biological science to the conservation of populations, communities, and ecosystems, including rare species management, exotic species invasions, management of natural disturbance, research strategies, and preserve design principles. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 567. Evolutionary Ecology. 3 Credits.

Advanced consideration of the evolution of form and function. May include issues in life-history evolution, evolutionary physiology, evolutionary morphology, and the evolution of complexity. Three lecture hours per week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 471 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 568. Disease Ecology and Evolution. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, one course above 400 in ecology or evolution. An advanced class covering the causes and consequences of infectious disease at the levels of whole organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and MATH 231 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 579. Organismal Structure and Diversity in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 4 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An examination of the field biology of selected fungi, plants, or animals of the Appalachian Mountains. The morphology, taxonomy, ecology, life history, and behavior of the organisms will be explored both in the laboratory and in the field.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 590. Advanced Special Topics in Biology. 3 Credits.

Special topics in biology for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 590L. Laboratory in Advanced Special Topics in Biology. 1 Credit.

Laboratory at an advanced level in special topics in biology. Students should have had considerable previous laboratory experience.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 602. Professional Development Skills for Ecologists and Biologists. 3 Credits.

The goal of this course is to help students who intend to become professional ecologists or biologists acquire critical skills and strategies needed for achieving their career goals.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 602.

BIOL 603. MiBio Seminar. 2 Credits.

This class is designed to 1) enhance students' ability to present scientific material to their peers in a comprehensive, cohesive manner, 2) familiarize students with scientific concepts and technologies used in multiple disciplines, 3) expose students to cutting edge research, 4) prepare students to gain substantial meaning from seminars and to ask questions, and 5) enhance students' ability to evaluate scientific papers and seminars.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BIOC 603, CBPH 603, GNET 603.

BIOL 604. Laboratory Practices for New Investigators. 1 Credit.

Required preparation, participation in an ongoing laboratory research project. Permission of the instructor. A seminar course designed to introduce students to approaches and methods needed in carrying out an independent research project in a particular focus area of biology. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 605. Reading and Writing Scientific Literature. 1 Credit.

A seminar course designed to introduce students to how to read and write scientific papers. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 620. Bacterial Genetics with Emphasis on Pathogenic and Symbiotic Interactions. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, a course in microbiology, a course in molecular biology numbered above 300, or research experience in microbiology or molecular biology. Molecular genetics of bacteria. The emphasis will be on pathogenic and symbiotic interactions of bacteria with eukaryotes, although other aspects of bacterial genetics will be considered.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 621. Principles of Genetic Analysis I. 3 Credits.

Prerequisite for undergraduates, BIOL 202. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Genetic principles of genetic analysis in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 621.

BIOL 622. Principles of Genetic Analysis II. 4 Credits.

Principles of genetic analysis in higher eukaryotes genomics.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 621.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 622.

BIOL 624. Developmental Genetics. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Genetic and molecular control of plant and animal development. Extensive reading from primary literature.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 624.

BIOL 625. Seminar in Genetics. 2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Current and significant problems in genetics. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 12 total credits. 6 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 625.

BIOL 631. Advanced Molecular Biology I. 3 Credits.

Required preparation for undergraduates, at least one undergraduate course in both biochemistry and genetics. DNA structure, function, and interactions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including chromosome structure, replication, recombination, repair, and genome fluidity. Three lecture hours a week.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 631, BIOC 631, MCRO 631.

BIOL 632. Advanced Molecular Biology II. 3 Credits.

Required preparation for undergraduates, at least one undergraduate course in both biochemistry and genetics. The purpose of this course is to provide historical, basic, and current information about the flow and regulation of genetic information from DNA to RNA in a variety of biological systems. Three lecture hours a week.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 632, BIOC 632, MCRO 632.

BIOL 635. Careers in Biotechnology. 1 Credit.

This seminar course will provide graduate and advanced undergraduate students information on career opportunities and culture in the field of biotechnology. The instructor and guest lecturers will present examples of global challenges addressed by modern biotechnology, and how research and development are carried out in the industry. Students will develop and present their own plan for a new biotechnology venture.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 639. Seminar in Plant Molecular and Cell Biology. 1 Credit.

Permission of the instructor. May be repeated for credit. Current and significant problems in plant molecular and cell biology are discussed in a seminar format. Can count as BIOL elective credit in the major if combined with other 600-level courses for a total of three credit hours.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 12 total credits. 12 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 642. Advanced Studies of Cell Division. 3 Credits.

An advanced course in cell and molecular biology integrating genetic, biochemical, and structural aspects of the cell cycle. Principles derived from a variety of biological systems. Extensive reading of classic papers as well as recent literature.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 643. Molecular Mechanisms of the Cytoskeleton. 3 Credits.

This seminar examines the cytoskeletal systems of eukaryotes and prokaryotes via primary literature. Architectures of cytoskeletal components are compared and contrasted along with their regulators, nucleators, and molecular motors.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 205 and CHEM 430 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 648. Palynology. 5 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. A consideration of various aspects of palynology, including the morphology, structure, development, systematics, evolution, preparation techniques, and analysis of living and fossil pollen grains, spores, and other palynomorphs. Two lecture and six laboratory hours a week.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 649. Seminar in Cell Biology. 2 Credits.

May be repeated for credit. Can count as BIOL elective credit in the major if combined with other 600-level courses for a total of three credit hours.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 12 total credits. 6 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 650. Animal Cognition. 3 Credits.

For advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The goal of the course is to gain an in-depth understanding of animal cognition in the context of evolution and neurobiology with an emphasis on recent research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 657. Biological Oceanography. 4 Credits.

For graduate students undergraduates need permission of the instructor. Marine ecosystem processes pertaining to the structure, function, and ecological interactions of biological communities management of biological resources taxonomy and natural history of pelagic and benthic marine organisms. Three lecture and one recitation hours per week. Two mandatory weekend fieldtrips.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 504, ENVR 520.

BIOL 659. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology. 2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced studies in evolutionary biology. Can count as BIOL elective credit in the major if combined with other 600-level courses for a total of three credit hours.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 12 total credits. 6 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 661. Plant Ecology. 4 Credits.

Consideration of terrestrial, vascular plant ecology including environmental physiology, population dynamics, and community structure. Laboratory stresses collection and interpretation of field data. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Gen Ed: EE- Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 662. Field Plant Geography. 2 Credits.

Intensive literature and field study of the plant geography and ecology of a selected region. Weekly seminar-style discussion followed by approximately nine days' field experience. May be repeated for credit.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 661 or 561 and permission of the instructor.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 669. Seminar in Ecology. 1-3 Credits.

May be repeated for credit.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 12 total credits. 12 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 669.

BIOL 680. Advanced Seminar in Recent Biological Research and Methods. 1 Credit.

Permission of the instructor. The course will cover topics and experimental approaches of current interest. Students will learn intellectual and practical aspects of cutting-edge topics in biology. It will meet for one hour per week, in a lecture and discussion format.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 3 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 690. Advanced Special Topics with an Emphasis on Recent Research. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Special topics in biology with an emphasis on recent research. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 692H. Senior Honors Thesis in Biology. 3 Credits.

Preparation of a written and oral presentation of honors thesis research. Research must continue in the same laboratory used in BIOL 395. Senior biology majors only (first or second majors). Required of all candidates for Highest Honors or Honors. Can be taken in either the fall or spring semester of their senior year. Approval of the Biology Honors Director required. Permission of a faculty research director and three credit hours of BIOL 395 in the same laboratory required.
Gen Ed: CI, EE- Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 701. Overview of Biology. 1-2 Credits.

Biology faculty will present individual research presentations followed by discussion.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 703. Recent Advances in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

A consideration of the methods and literature involved in the latest advances in selected areas of biology.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 704. Seminars in Biophysics. 2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Students present seminars coordinated with the visiting lecturer series of the Program in Molecular and Cellular Biophysics.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BIOC 704.

BIOL 705. Best Practices for Rigor and Reproducibility in Research. 1 Credit.

A workshop to introduce best practices for increasing rigor and reproducibility in research. Permission of course directors required.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BBSP 705.

BIOL 758. Molecular Population Biology. 4 Credits.

Hands-on training, experience, and discussion of the application of molecular genetic tools to questions of ecology, evolution, systematics, and conservation.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 471 Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 742.

BIOL 801. Seminar in Biological Sciences. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in interdisciplinary biological sciences.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 810. Seminar in College Science Teaching. 2 Credits.

This interactive course will help graduate students develop the knowledge and skills needed to implement student-centered science instruction at the university level. Participants will support one another in creating a teachable unit, a personal teaching philosophy statement, and a course syllabus.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 829. Seminar in Quantitative Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in quantitative biology.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 831. Seminar in Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Endocrinology. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in insect physiology, biochemistry, and endocrinology.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 832. Seminar in Molecular Biology. 1-2 Credits.

Advanced seminar in molecular biology.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 841. Seminar in Embryology. 1-2 Credits.

Advanced seminar in embryology.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 842. Seminar in Cell Biology and Biochemistry. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in cell biology and biochemistry.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 845. Advanced Seminar in Neurobiology. 2 Credits.

Advanced seminar in Neurobiology. Students should have previous experience in Neurobiology courses or research.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics 6 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 852. Seminar in Plant Systematics. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in plant systematics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 853. Seminar in Plant Morphology and Anatomy. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in plant morphology and anatomy.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 854. Seminar in Neurophysiology. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in neurophysiology. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 855. Seminar in Invertebrate Zoology. 1-2 Credits.

Advanced seminar in invertebrate zoology. May be repeated for credit.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 475 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 856. Seminar in Vertebrate Evolutionary Biology. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in vertebrate evolutionary biology. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 857. Seminar in Comparative Animal Behavior. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in comparative animal behavior. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: NBIO 857.

BIOL 858. Seminar in Comparative Physiology. 1-2 Credits.

Advanced seminar in comparative physiology.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 451 permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: NBIO 858.

BIOL 859. Seminar in Marine Biology. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced seminar in marine biology. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 861. Statistical Analysis in Ecology and Evolution using R. 1 Credit.

Graduate standing in biology, ecology or genetics required. Introduction to statistical analysis and modeling of ecological and evolutionary data using the R programming environment.
Requisites: Prerequisite, STOR 155.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 890. Special Topics in Biology. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Consideration of special topics in biology. May be repeated once for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 891. Graduate Seminar in Biology. 2 Credits.

Graduate standing or permission of the instructor. This course will increase students' intellectual depth across the fields of ecology, evolution, and organismal biology (EEOB). Students will read and discuss papers, attend seminars, and present research ideas. Required of all candidates for the degree in biology in the EEOB graduate program.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 892. Special Topics in Biology for Graduate Students. 1-4 Credits.

This course is designed to allow graduate students to explore areas of biology outside their direct area of specialization. Three credits lecture only. Four credits lecture and lab.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 901. Introduction to Graduate Research. 1-15 Credits.

Graduate research for six weeks in two laboratories. Designed primarily to acquaint first-year students with research techniques and to assess their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of students and faculty members during fall orientation. May be repeated once for credit. Six to nine hours per week.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 921. Research in Genetics. 1-15 Credits.

May be repeated for credit.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 905.

BIOL 931. Research in Molecular Biology. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 932. Research in Plant Molecular Biology. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 941. Research in Cytology and Cell Biology. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 942. Research in Embryology. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 943. Research in Physiology: Cellular, Comparative, Neurophysiology. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 951. Research in Neurobiology. 3-12 Credits.

Permission of the department. Research in various aspects of neurobiology. Six to 24 hours a week.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: NBIO 951, PHCO 951.

BIOL 952. Research in Ethology and Animal Behavior. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 953. Research in Marine Sciences. 2-21 Credits.

BIOL 954. Research in Marine Sciences on Mollusca, Crustacea, Ichthyology, or Oceanography. 1-15 Credits.

Permission of the department. At the Institute for Marine Sciences, Morehead City, NC.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 955. Research in Vertebrate or Invertebrate Zoology. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 957. Research in Plant Systematics. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 958. Research in Plant Morphology and Anatomy. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement for student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 959. Research in Paleobotany. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of student and faculty member.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 961. Research in Ecology. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of the student and faculty member.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit may be repeated in the same term for different topics.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 992. Master's (Non-Thesis). 3 Credits.

Course for graduate students expecting to receive the degree of Master of Arts in Biology.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.

BIOL 993. Master's Research and Thesis. 3 Credits.

BIOL 994. Doctoral Research and Dissertation. 3 Credits.


Biology 102 - Biology

There will be multiple choice questions (such as those that follow), slide identification questions and short answer questions

Supposedly there is one answer for each of these that is correct or, at least, is the best answer. Which?

_____ 1. Plants and animals first became established on land during the ________ .
A. early Proterozoic Eon D. Paleozoic Era
B. late Proterozoic Eon E. Mesozoic Era
C. Cenozoic Era

_____2. Which of the following types of plants dominates most of the world's land areas today?
A. angiosperms B. gymnosperms C. bryophytes D. ginkos E. lycopods

_____3. A yeast is a(n) _________ adapted to ________ .
A. mycelium, life in soil
B. protozoan, life in water
C. fungal protistan, life in rotten logs
D. unicellular fungus, life in wet environments
E. unicellular alga, life in dry environments

_____4. A brown alga seaweed might be ___________ .
A. living in Lake Whatcom
B. responsible for the thickener in your salad dressing
C. food for amphibians
D. able to form mycorrhizae with fungi
E. classified as a plant in your text (CMR)

_____5. The _______ represents the sporophyte generation of a conifer, while the _______ is a gametophyte.
A. cone, tree B. tree, cone C. tree, pollen D. tree, seed E. seed, tree

_____6. You find a small, elongated animal embedded in sand with one end sticking out. It has segmental musculature, a coelom, a series of pores on either side of the body, and a complete digestive tract with an anus located partway down the body. This animal is _________ .
A. an annelid (segmented worm)
B. either an annelid or a larval echinoderm
C. either an annelid, a larval echinoderm, or a chordate
D. either a larval echinoderm or a chordate
E. a chordate

_____7. Which of the following characteristics is (are) seen only in chordates?
1. bilateral symmetry 3. gill slits in pharynx
2. a coelom 4. notochord
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. both 3 and 4

_____8. Which of the following choices pairs a characteristic with two groups in which it is found?
A. amniotic egg: amphibians, reptiles
B. radial body plan: flatworms, Cnidarian medusae
C. embryonic notochord: bony fishes, larval amphibians
D. endoskeleton: lobsters, sea urchins
E. hinged jaws: lampreys, bony fish

_____9. Which of the following types of study has yielded results that support the hypothesis that all modern humans are descended from a single population of Homo erectus?
A. studies of the distribution of "Lucy"-like fossils
B. studies comparing the distributions of australopithecine and H. erectus fossils.
C. studies of fossilized Neanderthal DNA
D. studies of mitochondrial DNA among living human populations
E. comparative studies of the mitochondrial DNA of H. sapiens and H. erectus

_____10. In animals bilateral symmetry is always associated with which other characteristic?
A. sessile feeding strategies
B. development of a head
C. incomplete digestive tract
D. coevolution with bilaterally symmetrical flowers
E. herbivorous diets

_____11. Bacteria differ from protista in __________
A. presence of nuclei
B. presence of membrane bound organelles
C. type of flagellum (if present)
D. all of these
E. none of these

_____12. A major trend of evolution of plants involves the ___________ .
A. reduction of the sporophyte phase
B. reduction of the gametophyte phase
C. formation of larger, photosynthetic spores
D. separation of male and female sporophytes
E. reduction in vascular tissue in the gametophyte

_____13. Most building timber in this country comes from which group?
A. Basidiomycota D. Angiosperms
B. Tree Ferns E. Cycads
C. Gymnosperms

_____14. Which of the following events are most closely tied with the Mesozoic Era?
A. Rise of the gymnosperms
B. Diversification of monkeys
C. Diversification of the dinosaurs
D. A and B
E. A and C

_____15. Which of the following environmental characteristics has NOT been suggested as an evolutionary "force"?
A. the arrangement of the stars in the constellation Orion
B. predation of one group on another
C. newly available environments (land, coastal evironments, etc.)
D. isolation of populations on islands
E. changes in the climate

There will also be some questions asking you to identify the kingdom, phylum or class (vertebrate classes) of organisms based on views of them in Kodachrome slides, drawings or written descriptions.

Possible short answer questions:

16. List five major evolutionary events in order (any five that we have regarded as being important).

17. Describe the changes in the general position of the continents from the early Paleozoic to present day, giving approximate time for each "arrangement or change" in millions of years before present.

18. What event(s) caused there to be three major Eras in the Phanerozoic Eon?

19. Name one group of organisms whose evolutionary history (and distribution of fossil forms or present-day relatives) is explained in part by an understanding of past continent movements (continental drift) and explain what aspects of continental movements were involved in the distribution of those organisms.

20. Give two examples of close mutualistic, parasitic or coevolved associations between groups of organisms: of each name the group and its phylum for each of the associates and give the benefit or harm to each of the associates.


Colleges

Focus on courses and programs offered by specific colleges. Search for, and browse, specific courses and programs at the college you are interested in.

The courses listed on this VCCS website are updated on a term by term basis and reflect only those courses approved for offering during the most current term. All VCCS colleges must use, as a minimum, the standard course prefix, course number, credit value(s), and descriptions contained in this listing.

When scheduling courses, colleges may use the local rule to assign pre- or co-requisites that are not listed in the Master Course File.

Questions, additional information, and corrections regarding the Master Course File should be addressed here.


Biology 102 - Biology


Biology 102 Frequently Asked Questions & Answers

(click on the questions for the answers)

Can I attend a lab/recitation section I'm not registered for?
You are not allowed to attend another lab/recitation section , utilize the GTA office hours instead. Lab and recitation activities are important sources of material for the exams and Biology Journals. If you missed an activity and would like to learn what was missed, you can attend any Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) office hour (also posted outside 133 Weniger) the following week to go over the activity. It is recommended that you read over the missed activity before attending to maximize the time available with the GTA. If you know you will miss lab or recitation at the end of a week before an exam or Biology Journal due date, it is recommended that you attend GTA office hours earlier in the week, prior to missing the activity.

I missed/will miss a lab/recitation, what do I do?
If you missed an activity and would like to learn what was missed, you can attend any Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) office hour (also posted outside 133 Weniger) the following week to go over the activity. You are not allowed to attend another lab/recitation section , utilize the GTA office hours instead. Lab and recitation activities are important sources of material for the exams and Biology Journals.It is recommended that you read over the missed activity before attending to maximize the time available with the GTA. If you know you will miss lab or recitation at the end of a week before an exam or Biology Journal due date, it is recommended that you attend GTA office hours earlier in the week, prior to missing the activity.

I will miss the first weeks acitivites, will I be dropped from the course?
No, you will not be dropped from the section. If you are enrolled in a section, your seat is reserved for you, weather you attend or not. If you missed an activity and would like to learn what was missed, you can attend any Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) office hour (also posted outside 133 Weniger) that week or the following week to go over the activity. You are not allowed to attend another lab/recitation section , utilize the GTA office hours instead. Lab and recitation activities are important sources of material for the exams and Biology Journals.It is recommended that you read over the missed activity before attending to maximize the time available with the GTA. If you know you will miss lab or recitation at the end of a week before an exam or Biology Journal due date, it is recommended that you attend GTA office hours earlier in the week, prior to missing the activity.

How do I change lab/recitation sections?
General Biology is typically fully enrolled and sections are waitlisted. There is plenty of space in the lectures but the labs/recitations have limited space. The only way to change the section you are enrolled in is to change sections through the registrar. When doing this online be sure not to drop the section you are currently enrolled in, as you might not get back into the course. Contact the registrar for guidance. You are not allowed to attend a lab/recitation section you are not enrolled in.

I missed/will miss a lecture, what do I do?
We recommend that you get lecture notes from a friend in class. After reviewing the notes if you have questions, please attend any Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) office hour (also posted outside 133 Weniger).

I missed the time cut-off for the Digital Post, Can I turn it in late?
Digital posts and the Digital Summary are used to assess science understanding and skills related to constructing media about science. Descriptions of the Digital Post and Digital Summary are available in Appendix B of the activity manual and at the course website. Each week's digital post has a designated topic and the topic needs to be a component of the post to receive full credit. After uploading each post to Canvas, there is a brief survey on Canvas about that uploaded content. Each uploaded post of original content is worth two possible points, each accompanying survey is worth one point. There is a week to make and upload each digital post and take the accompanying survey prior to the due date/time, no late posts are accepted for credit . There are two weeks to complete the digital summary assignment on Canvas prior to the due date/time, no late digital summaries are accepted for credit .

I've got an exam conflict, what do I do?
All exam times were listed in the schedule of classes at the time of registration, prior to the start of the term. If you have scheduled a conflicting class or have a conflicting exam at the same time as a General Biology exam, it may be possible to take the General Biology exam slightly earlier on the same day, or a different format exam later in the week. Contact Dr. Lesley Blair for arrangements during the first two weeks of the term. No exam will be given on a date earlier than the scheduled date.

Can I take the exam at an earlier date/time? (AR 16. Finals Week)
Students frequently request early exams due to travel plans or other considerations. Due to the size of the course, the exam dates and times listed in the schedule of classes will be followed. The final exam will be given according to the "Schedule of Group Examinations." There will be no final exams given prior to the scheduled date/time .

Can I use note cards, a translator, a dictionary, etc. during the exam?
No. students can not use note cards, dictionaries, translators, computers, calculators, cell-phones, iPods, etc. during exams. Only a pencil and eraser.

I forgot to turn in my Biology Journal, what do I do?
Journals can be turned in early (starting the previous week). Journals are assemblages of student work to be completed over two to three weeks of time, with minimal work the weekend before a due date. The 5:00 p.m. Tuesday due date time is the latest a journal can be turned in for full credit. Late journals are any journals turned in past the 5:00 p.m. due date cut-offs. Late journals will receive point penalties because (1) students had extra time to prepare the journals, and (2) late journals are not available for the team grading session and will require extra attention. Late journals can be turned in to the mailslot in 131 Weniger Hall (GTAs are not to accept late journals) in the following time periods with mandatory deductions: (1) After 5:00 p.m. on the due date until noon/12:00 p.m. the next day (typically Wednesday). These late journals will receive a 25% point deduction. (2) After 12:00 p.m. the day after the journal is due until noon/12:00 p.m. the next day (typically Thursday). These late journals will receive a 50% point deduction. It is not recommended that you slide late journals under the door of room 131 Weniger, any journals received in this manner will be dated as received on the next date. Journals turned in after the noon/12:00 p.m. cut-off on Thursday will receive no credit.). If you are ill, contact Dr. Lesley Blair before the journal is due. The only journals accepted more than two days late would be in the case of a serious, unavoidable conflict (such as military commitments, being personally hospitalized, or death of an immediate family member). Arrangements should be made with Dr. Blair as soon as possible in these cases. as soon as possible in these cases.

I'm thinking of "S/U-ing" this course, should I? (AR18. Alternative Grading)
At least 140 points have to be earned to get a C- in General Biology. If you are not sure whether you should choose the S/U option, consult your advisor. Typically it is most critical to choose the S/U option if a lower grade point average will impact a scholarship or financial aid in some manner. If there is a possibility of getting the U nsatisfactory grade (less than a "C-", less than 140 points), it may be important to weigh the impact of earning a low grade (D+, D, D-, F) without the S/U option, versus the impact of a "U" grade and having to re-take a science lab course, i.e. credit for the course versus no credit.

How do I calculate my grade?
The total number of points possible in General Biology are:


Biology (BIOL)

Introductory survey of macromolecules, cell structure and function, genetics, and molecular biology.

Carolina Core: SCI

Introductory survey of macromolecules, cell structure and function, genetics, and molecular biology. Three lecture hours per week. Restricted to students who have credit for BIOL 101L but lack the lecture.

(Recommended concurrent with BIOL 101). Experimental examination of basic principles of cell biology, genetics and metabolism. Three hours per week.

Carolina Core: SCI

Introductory survey of plant and animal development, physiology, ecology, and evolution.

Carolina Core: SCI

Introductory survey of plant and animal development, physiology, ecology, and evolution. Three lecture hours per week. Restricted to students who have credit for BIOL 102L but lack the lecture.

Experimental examination of structure and function of plant and animal systems, biodiversity, ecology. BIOL 101, 102, 101L and 102L must be completed prior to enrolling in 300-level or above Biology courses.

Carolina Core: SCI

Basic biological concepts and issues for non-biology majors. Credit may not be given for both this course and BIOL 120. Three lecture, two laboratory hours per week.

Carolina Core: SCI

Fundamental principles of human biology. Credit may not be given for both BIOL 110 and BIOL 120. Three lecture hours per week. Not for major credit.

Carolina Core: SCI

Exercises dealing with basic concepts of human biology. Not for major credit.

Carolina Core: SCI

An introduction to plant science for the non-major. This course does not carry major credit, and is not designed as a Plant development, physiology, genetics, evolution, and ecology will be considered. Three lecture hours per week.

Laboratory exercises, demonstrations, and audio-visual supplements to BIOL 200. Not for major credit. Two hours per week.

(Designed for non-major students.) Genetic principles, emphasizing human heredity. Relevance of recent advances in genetics. Three lecture hours per week.

Carolina Core: SCI

Scientific and social issues concerning the interrelationship of culture and agricultural biotic diversity and technology, climate change, resources management, food security, and human health.

Carolina Core: SCI, VSR

This course will ensure that elementary education majors will understand the fundamental concepts of Biology. Cannot be used for biology major credit.

Functional anatomy of the human body and its relation to disease processes. Not for biology major credit.

The principles of anatomy as demonstrated by microscopic studies and animal dissection. Three hours per week.

Fundamentals of functional human biology and knowledge of contemporary medical problems. Not for major credit.

Functional biology of organ systems in the maintenance of the whole organism homeostatic relationships. Not available for biology major credit. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.

Functional anatomy and physiology of the human body, including the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Not available for biology major credit. Three lecture hours per week.

Carolina Core: SCI

The principles of anatomy and physiology as demonstrated by microscopic studies, animal dissection, and physiological experiments. One three-hour laboratory per week.

Carolina Core: SCI

Functional anatomy and physiology of the human body, including the cardiovascular, endocrine, excretory, reproductive, digestive, and respiratory systems. Not available for biology major credit. Three lecture hours per week.

Carolina Core: SCI

A continuation of BIOL 243L. One three-hour laboratory per week.

Carolina Core: SCI

An introduction to bacteria and viruses, emphasizing structure, metabolism, and pathogenesis. Discussion of infectious diseases, antigen-antibody relationships, and anti-microbial agents in chemotherapy. Not available for biology major credit. Three lecture hours per week.

Not available for biology major credit. Three hours per week.

Physiology of human systems especially susceptible to disturbance: immunobiology, circulation, excretion, metabolism, endocrinology, and muscle physiology. Not for biology major credit. Intended for pharmacy students.

Basic ecological principles and the impacts of human population growth and technology. Not for major credit.

Carolina Core: SCI

Demonstrations, data analyses, discussions, and films relating to human ecology, resource use, and environmental impact. Not for major credit. Two hours per week.

Carolina Core: SCI

Concepts of evolution, populations, and population interactions communities and ecosystems. Three lecture hours per week.

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

Experiments, exercises, and demonstrations. Three hours per week.

Principles of eukaryotic cell structure, molecular organization, and physiology. Genome organization and expression. Cell growth, division, and cell-cell interactions. Three lecture hours per week.

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

Experiments, exercises, and demonstrations. Three hours per week.

Basic principles of transmission and molecular genetics quantitative inheritance recombination biochemical aspects of gene function and regulation developmental genetics and population genetics. Three lecture hours per week.

Observational and experimental examination of principles of genetics and inheritance.

Exploration of current careers in the animal industry including a brief overview of the sciences involved in animal production such as genetics and selection, behavior, physiology, reproduction, and nutrition of cattle (beef and dairy), horses, swine, sheep, poultry, and others.

Participation in preparation and teaching of undergraduate biological sciences laboratories.

Experiential Learning: Experiential Learning Opportunity

Contract approved by instructor, advisor, and department head is required for undergraduate students.

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development and functions of the nervous system, such as nervous system patterning, neuronal differentiation/migration, formation of neuronal projections, development of synapses, apoptosis, refinement of neuronal circuits, and how cells and neurons respond to signals from the environment.

Phylogenetic and comparative aspects of anatomy, reproduction, and embryology of the vertebrates. Three lecture hours and one three-hour laboratory period per week.

Phylogenetic survey of the major plant divisions consideration of the structure and development of flowering plants.

A survey of plants affecting human health and how they are used historically and in modern times, with emphasis on the biologically active constituents.

Basic introduction to plants, including cellular biology, energetics, structure-function relationships, development, nutrition, and diversity.

Illustration of principles of introductory botany and plant physiology using experiments, exercises, and demonstrations. Three laboratory hours per week.

Principles and methods of measuring production in the sea. Emphasis on the ocean’s role in the global carbon budget. Three lecture hours per week. Scheduled field trips are required.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 450

Functional physiology of human organ systems.

Experiments on organ system functions using different animal models.

Structure, function, and development of human anatomy.

Practical exercises in structure, function, and development of anatomy using digital and animal models.

The taxonomy, morphology, metabolism, genetics, and ecology of microorganisms.

Practical exercises with the taxonomy, morphology, metabolism, genetics, and ecology of microorganisms.

Elements of nutrition and animal feeding in veterinary practice. Three lecture hours per week.

Student seminars and a survey of research in the fields of Biological Sciences.

Methodologies of biological research with emphasis on hypothesis formation, research design, and data collection, and current issues in biology. Two lecture and six laboratory hours per week.

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

An overview of the microbial world including a survey of the distribution, functioning, and diversity of microorganisms in natural systems. Discusses the crucial roles that microorganisms play in ecosystem function, biogeochemical cycles, and environmental quality.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 503

An introduction to how cell-cell communication, gene expression, cell division, cytoskeletal dynamics, and interactions with the extracellular matrix result in the differentiation, pattern formation, morphogenesis, and growth necessary to generate a new individual.

Descriptive and experimental exercises related to embryology. One three-hour laboratory per week.

Molecular aspects of development from gamete formation through tissue and organ differentiation in plants and animals. Three lecture hours per week.

A series of experimentally oriented laboratory exercises will be performed. One three-hour laboratory per week.

Phylogenetic and comparative aspects of anatomy, physiology, reproduction, and embryology of the invertebrates.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 510

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

Descriptive and molecular examination of the processes and mechanisms used by plants in organogenesis, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Three lecture hours per week.

Experiments utilizing a genetic approach to the study of plant development. Three laboratory hours per week.

Taxonomy and morphology of fungi cultivation, life histories, and economic importance all classes and major orders considered. Three lecture hours per week. .

Diversity, distribution, physiology, ecology, evolution, and economic importance of marine algal, seagrass, and mangrove communities. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Scheduled field trips are required.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 525

Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.

Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.

Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.

An introduction to the tissues that make up the human body. The microscopic anatomy of tissues is examined and discussed in terms of function and physiology. Three lecture hours and four laboratory hours per week.

Parasites of biological, economic, and public health importance. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.

Cross-listed course: ENHS 661, EPID 661

A comparative survey of behavior patterns of animals from protists to humans and the physiological mechanisms underlying behavior.

Observational and experimental methods used in classifying animal behavior patterns and in determining underlying control mechanisms. One three-hour laboratory per week.

Management and conservation of aquatic and marine resources, with emphasis on fisheries. Data procurement and analysis commercial and recreational fisheries sociological, political, legal, and environmental factors that affect fishery management and fish biodiversity.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 535

Phylogeny, morphology, behavior, and ecology of fishes. Three lecture and 3 laboratory hours plus three field trips to be arranged.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 536

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

Introduction to the practical and scientific aspects of the commercial culture of freshwater and marine organisms. Three lecture hours per week. One all-day field trip required.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 537

The identification of behavioral adaptations of estuarine and marine organisms: their ecology, physiology, development, and evolutionary history field observations.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 538

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

Description of biological macromolecules and major metabolic pathways.

Cross-listed course: CHEM 550

Experiments and demonstrations illustrating the principles of biochemistry. Three laboratory hours per week.

Cross-listed course: CHEM 550L

An integrative and comparative study of the structure, function, and evolution of the physiological systems of animals. Three lecture hours per week.

Laboratory exercises to illustrate principles from BIOL 543. Three hours per week.

Essentials of modern biochemistry. First semester of a two-semester course. Three lecture hours per week.

Cross-listed course: CHEM 555

Essentials of modern biochemistry and molecular biology. Three lecture hours per week.

Cross-listed course: CHEM 556

A general survey of the major physiological processes in plants. Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.

Introduction to bacteria and viruses emphasizing ultrastructure, physiology, genetics, and growth. Discussion of public health, industrial, and environmental microbiology. Three lecture hours per week.

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

Three laboratory hours per week.

An introduction to the principles of population genetics, with emphasis on the origin, maintenance, and significance of genetic variation in natural populations.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 552

Graduation with Leadership Distinction: GLD: Research

Current concepts and applications of genomics, addressing questions from throughout biological inquiry.

Discussion of how physiological factors, like nutritional status, influence systemic signals to alter stem cell activity, and the physiological stimuli that impact stem cell activity in a variety of organisms (from worms to humans).

Interactions of organisms and the environment ecosystem structure and functions. Three lecture hours per week.

Principles of conservation biology. Importance of biodiversity, causes of decline and extinction, and restoration and conversation policy in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 03: 07/05/2019.

Cross-listed course: ENVR 571

Quantitative study of the population, community and evolutionary ecology of freshwater habitats (lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands). Includes mandatory field trips.

Cross-listed course: ENVR 572

Exploration of how human activities affect marine natural populations, species, communities and ecosystems, including threats to biodiversity approaches to marine conservation and ecological and evolutionary responses to anthropogenic disturbance. 03: 07/05/2019.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 574

Structure, dynamics, and interactions between populations and communities in marine ecosystems. Attendance at designated departmental seminars is required. Three lecture hours per week.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 575

Laboratory and field exercises in coastal environments.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 575L

Interdisciplinary examination of the distribution, reproduction, survival, and historical variation of the principal commercial marine fisheries. 03: 07/05/2019.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 576

Structure, productivity, and biodiversity of coral reefs, emphasizing their sensitivity, stability, and sustainability. Taught as an extended field experience with daily lectures and guided research activities.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 577

This course focuses on quantitative knowledge for interdisciplinary applications in genetics as well as hands-on experience in analyzing genetic data. In this course, students will have programming exercises in using analysis tools to conduct genome-wide analysis, annotation, and interpretation of genetic data using R/Bioconductor packages.

Cross-listed course: STAT 588

Current developments in biological sciences. Readings and research on selected topics. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of classes by title.

Survey of current concepts regarding the molecular and genetic factors that regulate the origin and progression of cancer. Readings based on current primary literature.

Advanced study of viruses with regard to biochemical, molecular, pathological, epidemiological, and biotechnological aspects. Focus on animal viruses with particular emphasis on human pathogens.

Focuses on the understanding of how stem cells can be used to make fundamental biological discoveries with a special focus in neuroscience.

Basic immunological concepts including antibody structure, function, and genetics cellular immunology transplantation hypersensitivity autoimmunity and immunity to infectious diseases.

Advanced study of infectious diseases caused by fungi. Etiology, symptoms, and treatment of fungi related illnesses.

Cross-listed course: ENHS 625

Examines the physiology and ecology of phytoplankton, including environmental controls on community composition, primary productivity, and detection and characterization of water quality (eutrophication) and harmful algal blooms.

Cross-listed course: MSCI 627

Biology of birds at molecular, organismal, and population levels, emphasizing unique adaptations of the class of Aves.

Advances in molecular and cellular neurobiology that bring new understanding for human neurological disease.

Descriptive and experimental aspects of the neural basis of behavior, emphasizing cellular and molecular mechanisms. Two lecture and six laboratory hours per week. Three lecture hours per week.

Interactions of microorganisms with each other, with more complex organisms, and with their environments. Three lecture hours per week.

This course examines how the mechanisms by which animals and plants interact with their physical environments influence organismal physiology.

Advanced study of related aspects of biological evolution. Rose of life from physical and chemical precursors, biochemical basis of adaptation to ecological pressures, and biochemical aspects of the origins and maintenance of biodiversity.

A study of the aquatic environment and its biota. Three lecture and four laboratory hours per week.

An advanced course in evolutionary biology, including natural selection, neutral evolution, molecular evolution population genetics, quantitative genetics, sexual selection, speciation, human evolution, and the evolution of disease.

Studies of the principles of genetics and molecular biology as applied to adaptive evolution of genes and genomes.

Speciation as the source of biological diversity. Historical and biological viewpoints. Analysis of concepts of species and models of speciation. Two lectures and one recitation per week.

Studies in molecular biology and genetics with emphasis on the use of newly developed techniques in biotechnology. Three lecture hours per week.

Techniques used in biotechnology will be employed in the context of an experimental project. Twelve laboratory hours per week.

Evolution, systematics, genetics, ecology, and adaptation of mammals. Emphasis on native South Carolina species. Two lectures and one two-hour laboratory per week, plus five field trips to be arranged.

Signaling pathways involved in human diseases, such as cancer, AIDS, autoimmune diseases and diabetes, and cellular processes involving apoptosis, cell cycle, cell-cell adhesion, growth factors, hormones, G protein-couples receptors, cytokines and immune response.

Molecular mechanisms underlying gene action and differentiation in man the genetic bases for human variability and inborn metabolic errors leading to inherited diseases.

An advanced examination of the molecular mechanisms underlying gene action in humans. Current literature illustrating the genotype-phenotype relationship in human disease pathogenesis will be discussed.

Core concepts of biochemistry as applied to human health and disease.

Cross-listed course: CHEM 655

Structure and dynamics of plant populations and communities, including life histories, adaptations, and plant interactions. Three lecture hours per week.

Laboratory and field exercises in plant ecology. Four hours per week.

Physiological, molecular, and genetic examination of induced plant responses to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses.

Theoretical and practical aspects of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, digital image acquisition and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Two lecture and one laboratory hour per week, plus a research project to be arranged.


Watch the video: pre-course Bio 102 introduction (November 2022).